Publications

BOOKS

  • Gibbs, J. P., M. L. Hunter, Jr., and E. J. Sterling. 2008. Problem-solving in conservation biology and wildlife management, 2nd edition. Blackwell Science, Inc. 315 pages.
  • Hunter, M. L., and J. P. Gibbs.  2007. Fundamentals of conservation biology, 3rd edition.  Blackwell Science. 516 pages.
  • Gibbs, J. P., A. R. Breisch, P. K. Ducey, G. Johnson, J. L. Behler, R. Bothner.  2007. Amphibians and reptiles of New York State: Identification, natural history and conservation.  Oxford University Press. 504 pages.
  • C. L. Elzinga, D. W. Salzer, J. W. Willoughby, and J. P. Gibbs.  2001.  Monitoring plant and animal populations. Blackwell Science, Inc. 360 pages.
  • Gibbs, J. P., M. L. Hunter, Jr., and E. J. Sterling. 1998. Problem-solving in conservation biology and wildlife management. Blackwell Science, Inc. 215 pages.



PEER-REVIEWED JOURNAL ARTICLES AND BOOK CHAPTERS

  • Hunter, E. A., P. Raney, J. P. Gibbs and D. J. Leopold.  In press. Improving wetland mitigation site identification through community distribution modeling and a patch-based ranking scheme. Wetlands.
  • Steen, D.A., J.P. Gibbs, K.A. Buhlmann, J.L. Carr, B.W. Compton, J.D. Congdon, J.S. Doody, J.C. Godwin, K.L. Holcomb, D.R. Jackson, F.J. Janzen, G. Johnson, M.T. Jones, J.T. Lamer, T.A. Langen, M.V. Plummer, J.W. Rowe, R.A. Saumure, J.K. Tucker, and D.S. Wilson. Terrestrial habitat requirements of nesting freshwater turtles. Biological Conservation: in press.
  • S. P. Campbell, J. L. Frair, J. P. Gibbs, and T. A. Volk. Use of short-rotation coppice willow crops by birds and small mammals in central New York. Biomass and Bioenergy.
  • K. Winchell, and J. P. Gibbs.  In press. Golf Courses as Refuges for Freshwater Turtles in Urban Landscapes. USGA Turfgrass and Environmental Research Online.
  • Quinn, S. A., J. P. Gibbs, M. H. Hall, and P. J. Petokas. In press.  Multi-scale Factors Influencing Distribution of the Eastern Hellbender Salamander (Cryptobranchus a. alleganiensis) in the Northern Segment of its Range. J. Herpetology.
  • Marquez, C., J. P. Gibbs, V. Carrión, S. Naranjo and A. Llerena. In press. Population response of giant Galápagos tortoises to feral goat removal. Restoration Ecology.   
  • Beier, C. M., A. M .Woods, K. Hotopp, J. P. Gibbs, M. J Mitchell, M. Dovciak, D. J. Leopold, G. B. Lawrence, and B. D Page. In Press. Variability in gastropod and amphibian communities along a soil calcium gradient in Adirondack northern hardwood forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research.
  • Sadeghayobi, E., S. Blake, M. Wikelski, J. P. Gibbs, R. Mackie, and F. Cabrera. In press. Digesta retention time in the Galápagos tortoise (Chelonoidis nigra). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part A
  • Garrick, R.C., E. Benavides, M.A. Russello, J.P. Gibbs, N. Poulakakis, K.B. Dion, C. Hyseni, B. Kajdacsi, L. Márquez, S. Bahan, C. Ciofi, W. Tapia, and A. Caccone. In Press. Genetic rediscovery of an 'extinct' Galápagos giant tortoise species. Current Biology.  
  • Da Silva Fernando R.; Oliveira Thiago A. L.; Gibbs James P.; et al. 2012. An experimental assessment of landscape configuration effects on frog and toad abundance and diversity in tropical agro-savannah landscapes of southeastern Brazil Landscape Ecology 27:87-96  
  • Da Silva Fernando Rodrigues; Gibbs James P.; Rossa-Feres Denise de Cerqueira. 2011. Breeding Habitat and Landscape Correlates of Frog Diversity and Abundance in a Tropical Agricultural Landscape. Wetlands 31:1079-1087
  • Conway Courtney J.; Gibbs James P. 2011. Summary of intrinsic and extrinsic factors affecting detection probability of marsh birds. Wetlands 31:403-411
  • Gibbs, J. P., and B. Milstead. 2012. Monitoring the Galápagos ecosystem: Challenges, pitfalls and a vision for the future In: M. Wolff and M. Gardener (eds.), The Role of Science for Conservation, Routledge Explorations in Environmental Economics / Taylor & Francis Ltd London, U.K.
  • Shriver W. Gregory; Gibbs James P.; Woltz Hara W.; et al. 2011. Galapagos Rail Laterallus spilonotus population change associated with habitat invasion by the Red-barked Quinine Tree Cinchona pubescens. Bird Conservation International 21: 221-227  
  • Conway Courtney J.; Gibbs James P. 2011. Summary of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors Affecting Detection Probability of Marsh Birds. Wetlands 31:403-411
  • Karraker Nancy E.; Gibbs James P. 2011. Contrasting road effect signals in reproduction of long-versus short-lived amphibians. Hydrobiologia 664:213-218
  • Karraker Nancy E.; Gibbs James P. 2011. Road deicing salt irreversibly disrupts osmoregulation of salamander egg clutches. Environmental Pollution 159:833-835.
  • Patrick David A.; Schalk Christopher M.; Gibbs James P.; et al. 2010. Effective Culvert Placement and Design to Facilitate Passage of Amphibians across Roads. Journal Of Herpetology 44: 618-626  
  • Shriver WG, Hodgman TP, Gibbs JP, and Vickery PD.  2010.  Home range sizes and habitat use of Nelson's and saltmarsh sparrows.  Wilson Journal of Ornithology 122:340-345
  • Patrick DA, Gibbs JP. 2010. Population structure and movements of freshwater turtles across a road-density gradient.  Landscape Ecology 25:791-801
  • Russello MA, Poulakakis N, Gibbs JP, et al.  2010.  DNA from the Past Informs Ex Situ Conservation for the Future: An "Extinct'' Species of Galapagos Tortoise Identified in Captivity.  PLoS One 5(1): e8683   
  • Shoemaker KT, Gibbs JP. 2010.  Evaluating Basking-habitat Deficiency in the Threatened Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake. Journal of Wildlife Management  74:504-513
  • Tierney, GL, D Faber-Langendoen, BR Mitchell, WG Shriver, JP Gibbs. 2009.  Monitoring and evaluating the ecological integrity of forest ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7:308-316.
  • Gibbs, J. P., and B. Milstead. 2009. Monitoring the Galápagos ecosystem. Challenges, pitfalls and a vision for the future In: M. Wolff and M. Gardener (eds.), Proceedings of the 2009 Galapagos Science Symposium, Charles Darwin Foundation, Puerto Ayora, Galapagos, Ecuador. 231 pp.
  • Chiari,Y. C. Hyseni, T. H. Fritts, S. Glaberman, C. Marquez, J. P. Gibbs, J. Claude, A. Caccone. 2009.  Morphometrics parallel genetics in a newly discovered and endangered taxon of Galápagos tortoise. PLoS One 4(7): e6272.
  • Karraker, N. E., J. P. Gibbs.  Amphibian production in forested landscapes in relation to wetland hydroperiod: A case study of vernal pools and beaver ponds. Biological Conservation 142(10):2293-2302.
  • Popescu, V. and J. P. Gibbs.  Interactions between climate, beaver activity, and pond occupancy of the cold-adapted mink frog in New York State, USA. Biological Conservation 142(10):2059-2068
  • R. D. Semlitsch, S. M. Blomquist, A. J.K. Calhoun, J. W. Gibbons, J. P. Gibbs, G. J. Graeter, E. B. Harper, D. J. Hocking, M. L. Hunter, Jr., D. A. Patrick, T.A.G. Rittenhouse, B. B. Rothermel, and B. D. Todd. 2009.  Effects of timber management on amphibian populations: understanding mechanisms from forest experiments.  BioScience 59(10): 853-862.
  • Gibbs, J. P., E. J. Sterling, and F. J. Zabala, Giant tortoises as ecological engineers: A long-term quasi-experiment in the Galápagos Islands. Biotropica 48:208-214.
  • Patrick, D. A. and J. P. Gibbs.  Snake occurrences in grassland associated with road versus forest edges. J. Herpetology 43:716-720.
  • D. H. Johnson, J. P. Gibbs, M. Herzog, S. Lor, N. D. Niemuth, C. A. Ribic, M. Seamans, T. L. Shaffer, W. G. Shriver, S. Stehman, and W. L. Thompson, A sampling design framework for monitoring secretive marshbirds. Waterbirds 32(2):203-215.
  • Zuckerberg, B., and J. P. Gibbs.  2009. Overcoming “analysis paralysis,” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 9:505-506
  • Lin, J., Gibbs, J.P., and Smart, L.B. 2009.  Population genetic structure of native versus naturalized sympatric shrub willows. Amer. J. Bot. 96:771-785
  • Karraker, N. E., J. P. Gibbs, and J. R. Vonesh.  2008. Impacts of road de-icing salt on the demography of vernal pool-breeding amphibians.  Ecological Applications 18:724–734
  • Woltz, H. W., J. P. Gibbs, and P. K. Ducey. 2008.  Road crossing structures for amphibians and reptiles: Informing design through behavioral analysis. Biological Conservation  141(11):2745-2750
  • Gibbs, J. P. and M. Reed.  2007.  Population and genetic linkages of vernal-pool associated amphibians.  In Science and Conservation of Vernal Pools in Northeastern North America (A. Calhoun and P. DeMaynadier, eds.). CRC Press, Pp 149-167.
  • Gibbs, J. P., C. Marquez, and E. J. Sterling.  2008.  The role of endangered species reintroduction in ecosystem restoration: Tortoise-cactus interactions on Española Island, Galápagos.  Restoration Ecology 16:88-93.
  • Russello, M. A., C. Hyseni, J. P. Gibbs, S. Cruz, C. Marquez, W. Tapia, P. Velensky, J. R. Powell, and A. Caccone. 2007. Lineage identification of Galapagos tortoises in captivity worldwide. Animal Conservation 10:304-311.
  • Russello, M. A., L. B. Beheregaray, J. P. Gibbs, T. Fritts, N. Havill, J. R Powell, A. Caccone.  2007.  Lonesome George is not alone among Galápagos tortoises. Current Biology 17:R317-8
  • Shriver, W. G., P. D. Vickery, T. P. Hodgman, and J. P. Gibbs. 2007. Flood tides affect breeding ecology of two sympatric sharp-tailed sparrows. Auk 124:552-560.
  • Steen, D. A., M. J. Aresco, S. G. Beilke, B. W. Compton, E. P. Condon, C. K. Dodd, H. Forrester, J. W. Gibbons, J. L. Greene, G. Johnson, T. A. Langen, M. J. Oldham, D. N. Oxier, R. A. Saumure, F. W. Schueler, J. M. Sleeman, L. L. Smith, J. K. Tucker, J. P. Gibbs. 2006. Relative vulnerability of female turtles to road Mortality. Animal Conservation 9:269-273.
  • Sterling, E. J., N. Bynum, J. P. Gibbs, and A. L. Porzecanski.  2006. Constuyendo capacidades para la biodiversidad en paises tropicales: La Red de Educadores y Profesionaeles de la Conservacion (REPC).  Revista Ambiente y Dessarollo de CIPMA 21:40-46.
  • Steen, D. A., J. P. Gibbs, S. T. A. Timmermans. 2006. Assessing the sensitivity of Wetland bird communities to hydrologic change in the eastern Great Lakes region. Wetlands 26:605-611.
  • Gibbs, J. P., and N. E. Karraker, 2006. Effects of warming conditions in eastern North American forests on red-backed salamander morphology. Conservation Biology 20:913-917.
  • Ciofi, C., G. A. Wilson, L. B. Beheregaray, C. Marquez, J. P. Gibbs, W. Tapia, H. L. Snell, A. Caccone, J. R. Powell. 2006. Phylogeographic history and gene flow among giant Galapagos tortoises on southern Isabela Island. Genetics 172:1727-1744.
  • Gibbs, J. P. and W. G. Shriver.  2005. Can road mortality limit populations of pool breeding amphibians?  Wetland Ecology and Management  13:281–289.
  • Russello, M. A., S. Glaberman, J. P. Gibbs, C. Marquez, J. R. Powell, and A. Caccone. 2005. A cryptic taxon of Galapagos tortoise in conservation peril. Biology Letters 1:287-290.
  • Gibbs, J. P., K. K. Whiteleather, and F. W. Schueler. 2005. Changes in frog and toad populations over 30 years in New York State. Ecological Applications 15:1148-1157.
  • Conway, C. J., and J. P. Gibbs. 2005. Effectiveness of call-broadcast surveys for monitoring marsh birds. Auk 122:26-35.
  • Shriver, W. G., J. P. Gibbs, P. D. Vickery, H. L. Gibbs, T. P. Hodgman, P. T. Jones, and C. N. Jacques. 2005. Concordance between morphological and Molecular markers in assessing hybridization between sharp-tailed sparrows in New England. Auk 121:94-107.
  • Gibbs, J. P., and D. A. Steen. 2005. Trends in sex ratios of turtles in the United States: Implications of road mortality. Conservation Biology 19:552-556.
  • Steen, D. A., and J. P. Gibbs. 2004. Effects of roads on the structure of freshwater turtle populations. Conservation Biology 18:1143-1148.
  • Shriver, W. G., T. P. Hodgman, J. P. Gibbs, and P. D. Vickery. 2004. Landscape context influences salt marsh bird diversity and area requirements in New England. Biological Conservation 119:545-553.
  • Shriver, W. G., and J. P. Gibbs.  2004.  Effects of sea-level rise on the population viability of Seaside Sparrows.  Pp. 397-409 in Species Conservation and Management: Case Studies (Edited by H. R. Akcakaya, M. Burgman, O. Kindvall, C. C. Ward, P. Sjogren-Gulve, J. S. Hatfield and M. A. McCarthy), Oxford University Press.
  • Milinkovitch, M. C., D. Monteyne, J. P. Gibbs, T. H. Fritts, W. Tapia, H. L. Snell, R. Tiedemann, A. Caccone, and J. R. Powell. 2004. Genetic analysis of a successful repatriation programme: Giant Galapagos Tortoises. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 271:341-345.
  • Burns, C. E., C. Ciofi, L. B. Beheregaray, T. H. Fritts, J. P. Gibbs, C. Marquez, M. C. Milinkovitch, J. R. Powell, and A. Caccone. 2003. The origin of captive Galapagos tortoises based on DNA analysis: implications for the management of natural populations. Animal Conservation 6:329-337.
  • Márquez, C., H. Vargas, H. Snell, A. Mauchamp, J. Gibbs and W. Tapia.  2003.  ¿Por qué tan pocas Opuntia en la isla Española-Galápagos?  Ecología Aplicada 2:21-29.
  • Gibbs, J. P., W. G. Shriver, and H. Vargas. 2003. An assessment of a Galapagos Rail population over thirteen years (1986 to 2000). Journal of Field Ornithology 74:136-140.
  • Rosenbaum, H. C., M. T. Weinrich, S. A. Stoleson, J. P. Gibbs, C. S. Baker, and R. DeSalle. 2002. The effect of differential reproductive success on population genetic structure: Correlations of life history with Matrilines in humpback whales of the Gulf of Maine. Journal of Heredity 93:389-399.
  • Beheregaray, L. B., C. Ciofi, A. Caccone, J. P. Gibbs, and J. R. Powell. 2003. Genetic divergence, phylogeography and conservation units of giant tortoises from Santa Cruz and Pinzon, Galapagos Islands. Conservation Genetics 4:31-46.
  • Beheregaray L. B., C. Ciofi, D. Geist, J. P. Gibbs, A. Caccone, J. R. Powell. 2003.  Genes Record a Prehistoric Volcano Eruption in the Galápagos. Science 302(5642):75
  • Gibbs, J. P., and W. G. Shriver. 2002. Estimating the effects of road mortality on turtle populations. Conservation Biology 16:1647-1652.
  • Caccone, A., G. Gentile, J. P. Gibbs, T. H. Fritts, H. L. Snell, J. Betts, and J. R. Powell. 2002. Phylogeography and history of giant Galapagos tortoises. Evolution 56:2052-2066.
  • Ciofi, C., M. C. Milinkovitch, J. P. Gibbs, A. Caccone, and J. R. Powell. 2002. Microsatellite analysis of genetic Divergence among populations of giant Galapagos tortoises. Molecular  Ecology 11:2265-2283.
  • Herkert, J.R., D.E. Kroodsma, and J.P Gibbs. 2001. Sedge wren (Cistothorus platensis). In The Birds of North America, No. 582:1-20 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.).
  • Gibbs, J. P., and A. R. Breisch.  2001.  Climate warming and the calling phenology of frogs near Ithaca, New York, 1900-1999.  Conservation Biology 15:1175-1178.
  • Gibbs, J. P.  2001. Demography versus habitat fragmentation as determinants of genetic variation in wild populations.  Biological Conservation 100:15-20.
  • Bedford, B.L., D.J. Leopold, and J.P. Gibbs. 2000. Wetland biodiversity. Pp. 781-804 in Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, Academic Press, San Diego.
  • Gibbs, J. P., and G. D. Amato. 2000. Genetics and demography in turtle conservation. Pp. 207-217 in Turtle conservation (M. W. Klemens, ed.). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. (Invited)
  • Gibbs, J. P.  2000.  Monitoring populations.  Pp. 213-247 in Research techniques in animal ecology: controversies and consequences (L. Boitani & T. Fuller, eds.).  Columbia University Press, New York.
  • Gibbs, J. P., and E. J. Stanton. 2000. Habitat fragmentation and arthropod community change: Carrion beetles, phoretic Mites, and flies.  Ecological Applications 11:79-85.
  • Hall, C. A. S., P. W. Jones, T. M. Donovan, and J. P. Gibbs.  2000.  The implications of mainstream economics for wildlife conservation.  Wildlife Society Bulletin 28, 16-25.
  • Gibbs, J. P.  2000.  Wetland loss and biodiversity conservation.  Conservation Biology 14:314-317.
  • Caccone, A., J. P. Gibbs, V. Ketmaier, E. Suitoni, and J. R. Powell.  1999.  Origin and evolutionary relationships of giant Galápagos tortoises.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 96: 13223 13228.
  • Gibbs, J. P., H. L. Snell, and C. A. Causton.  1999.  Effective monitoring for adaptive wildlife management: lessons from the Galápagos Islands.  Journal of Wildlife Management 63:1055-1065. (Invited)
  • Gibbs, J. P., S. Droege, and P. Eagle. 1998. Monitoring populations of plants and animals. BioScience 48:935 940.
  • Gibbs, J. P. 1998. Genetic structure of redback salamander (Plethodon cinereus) populations in fragmented and unfragmented forests. Biological Conservation 86:77 81.
  • Gibbs, J. P. 1998. Distribution of woodland amphibians along a forest fragmentation gradient. Landscape Ecology 16:263 268.
  • Gibbs, J. P., and L. K. Kinkel.  1997.  Determinants of the size and location of Great Blue Heron colonies.  Colonial Waterbirds 20:1-7.
  • Melvin, S.M., and J.P. Gibbs. 1996. Sora (Porzana carolina). In A. Poole and F. Gill, eds. The Birds of North America, No. 250. The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, and the American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC.
  • Clark, T. W., J. P. Gibbs, and P. W. Goldstraw.  1995. Some demographics of the extirpation from the Wild of eastern barred bandicoots (Perameles gunnii) in 1988 1991, near Hamilton, Victoria, Australia.  Wildlife Research 22:289 297.
  • Gibbs, J. P.  1995.  Hydrologic needs of wetland animals. Encyclopedia of Environmental Biology (W. A. Nierenberg, ed.), Academic Press.  Vol. 2:267 276.
  • Gibbs. J. P.  1995.  Population viability analysis.  Pages 140 143 in M. L. Hunter, Jr.,  Fundamentals of Conservation Biology.  Blackwell Science, Inc.
  • Kellert, S. R., J. P. Gibbs, T. Wohlgenant.  1995. Canadian perceptions of commercial fisheries management and Marine mammal conservation in the northwest Atlantic Ocean.  Anthrozoös 8:20 30.
  • Powell, J. R.m and J. P. Gibbs. 1995.  A report from Galápagos.  Trends in Ecology and Evolution  10:351 354.
  • Beissinger, S. R., and J. P. Gibbs.  1995.  Monitoring and science: comfortable bedfellows. Conservation Biology  9:465 467.
  • Gibbs, J. P.  1995.  MONITOR: software for estimating the power of population monitoring programs to detect trends in plant and animal abundance.  Exeter Software, Setauket, New York (converted to freeware and distributed by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service as of Feb. 1996).
  • Melvin, S. M., and J. P. Gibbs.  1994.  Sora.  Pages 209 218 in Migratory Shore and Upland Game Bird Management in North America (T. C. Tacha and C. E. Braun, eds.). International Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies, Washington, D.C.
  • Saberwal, V. K., J. P. Gibbs, Ravi Chellam, and A. J. T. Johnsingh.  1994.  Lion human conflict in the Gir Forest, India.  Conservation Biology  8:501 507.
  • Beissinger, S. R., and J. P. Gibbs.  1993.  Are variable environments stochastic?  A review of methods to quantify environmental predictability.  Pages 132 146 in Adaptation in stochastic environments (J. Yoshimura and C. Clark, eds.).  Springer Verlag, New York.
  • Gibbs, J. P.  1993.  Importance of small Wetlands for the persistence of local populations of wetland animals.  Wetlands  13:25 31.
  • Gibbs, J. P., M. L. Hunter, and S. M. Melvin.  1993.  Snag availability and communities of cavity nesting birds in tropical versus temperate forests.  Biotropica  25:236 241.
  • Gibbs, J. P., and S. M. Melvin.  1993.  Call response surveys for monitoring breeding waterbirds. Journal of Wildlife Management  7:27 34.
  • Gibbs, James P. and Daniel G. Wenny.  1993.  Song output as a population estimator: effect of male pairing status. Journal of Field Ornithology 64:316-322.
  • Gibbs, J. P.; F. A. Reid and S. M. Melvin.  Least Bittern. Birds of North America 17:1-12. 1992. (Poole, A.; Gill, F., editors).
  • Gibbs, J. P.; S. Melvin and F. A. Reid.  American Bittern. Birds of North America 18:1-12. 1992. (Poole, A.; Gill, F., editors).
  • Gibbs, James P., W. Gregory Shriver, and Scott M. Melvin.  1991.  Spring and summer records of the yellow rail in Maine.  Journal of Field Ornithology,  62(4): 509-516.
  • Gibbs, J. P.  1991.  Spatial relationships between nesting colonies and foraging areas of great blue herons.  Auk  108:764 770.
  • Gibbs, J. P., J. R. Longcore, D. G. McCauley, and J. K. Ringelman.  1991.  Use of wetland habitats by selected nongame water birds in Maine.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fish and Wildlife Research 9. 57 pp.
  • Gibbs, J. P.  1991.  Avian nest predation rates in tropical lowland wet forest: an experimental study.  Oikos  60:155 161.
  • Gibbs, J. P., and J. Faaborg.  1989.  Estimating the viability of Kentucky Warbler and Ovenbird populations in forest fragments.  Conservation Biology 4:193 196.
  • Longcore, J. R. and J. P. Gibbs.  1988.  Distribution and numbers of American black ducks along the Maine coast during the severe winter of 1980-1981. Pp. 377-389 In Waterfowl in winter, (M. W. Weller, editor).  University of Minnesota Press.
  • Gibbs, J. P., S. Woodward, M. L. Hunter, and A. E. Hutchinson.  1987.  Determinants of great blue heron colony distribution in coastal Maine.  Auk 104:38-47.
  • Gibbs, H. L., S. C. Latta, and J. P. Gibbs.  1987.  Effects of the 1982-83 el Nino event on blue-footed and masked booby populations on Isla Daphne Major, Galápagos.  Condor 89:440-442.
  • Gibbs, H. L., and J. P. Gibbs.  1987.  Prey robbery by nonbreeding magnificent frigatebirds (Fregata magnificens).  Wilson Bulletin 99:101-104.