Introduction and a Brief History of Marine Ecology/Oceanography



I. Syllabus and Course Policies
II. Why study marine ecology?
    A. Planet Water
        1. ~71% of the earth is covered by salt water
        2. Ocean depth averages 3.8 km
        3. Oceans are the single largest habitats on the planet
        4. More people now live within 100 km (62 miles) of the coast than lived on the whole planet in 1950
    B. Human Uses of the Ocean
        1. Food
        2. Transportation
        3. Recreation
        4. Mineral Resources
        5. Dump
   C. Conservation Issues

III. Brief History of Oceanography and Marine Ecology
    A. Ancient knowledge of the ocean and marine organisms
    B. Aristotle
    C. James Cook – first to include a naturalist on his crew (1768)
    D. Darwin – voyage of the HMS Beagle (1831-1836)
        1. atoll formation
        2. plankton nets
        3. barnacles
    E. Edward Forbes – investigation of the sea floor
    F. Challenger expedition, 1872
    G. Marine Biological Stations
        1. Stazione Zoologica founded Naples, Italy, 1872
        2. Marine Biological Society of the UK at Plymouth, England in 1879
        3. Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods, Hole, Massachusetts, 1888
    H. Modern Oceanography and Marine Biology
        1. sonar – sound navigation ranging; map seafloor, hear organisms, locate plankton
        2. scuba – self-contained underwater breathing apparatus; Emile Gagnan and Jacques Costeau
        3. biological stations
        4. oceanographic cruises
        5. submarines and ROVs (remotely operated vehicles)
        6. critter cams
        7. satellites
  
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