EFB 797, 1 credit



Course Information
      Previous Classic Papers
      Schedule and Readings
      Full references for classics

Meeting time: Thursdays 9:30-10:50 AM

Location: 334 Illick Hall

Instructor: Kimberly L. Schulz

Office Hours: Mondays 1-2 PM, Fridays 9:30-10:30 AM, or by appointment

Contact information:

      phone: 470-6808 (office); x-4753 (lab)

      rooms: 456 (office); 454 (lab)



When was the last time you read the citation classic that you heard about in lecture or cited in a term paper?  Are the ideas in the paper still part of the modern paradigm of aquatic science?  Has the research been found obsolete, or are we actually still discussing the same topics today that aquatic scientists debated 30 (or 100) years ago?  In this seminar we will discuss 'classic' aquatic papers and 'modern' (<10 years old) follow-ups on the same topic.  Each week, one student will choose a topic, a classic paper, and a modern analog, and be responsible for leading the discussion.

Any area of aquatic science – freshwater to marine, behavior to ecosystems, microbes to cetaceans – is fair game.  Some suggested topics and papers are listed on the next page, but students are free to choose their own favorite (or most despised) classic for discussion.

For the purposes of this class, the classic paper should be >20 years old and heavily cited; something considered a foundational paper.  The modern paper should deal with some aspect of the same topic, and should be <10 years old.

Copies of the assigned papers either will be placed outside my office door (456 Illick) the week before the seminar, or pdf files will be linked on the course webpage when available.

I'll start us off next week with a discussion of Forbes' 1887 paper, "The lake as a microcosm", McIntosh's somewhat philosophical paper, "The myth of community as organism," and Soranno’s paper “Spatial Variation among Lakes within Landscapes: Ecological Organization along Lake Chains.”  These will be available outside my door and on the web on Friday.

 If possible (depending on class size), the last week of the seminar we will reserve for a freewheeling discussion of what we've learned from these comparisons: Do all of the classic citations deserve to be referenced so much?  Where has aquatic science made progress and where is it stagnant?  What did you learn from these papers?


Your responsibilities for this seminar will be:

-         Choose a week to lead discussion

-         Choose a topic for your week

-         Select papers at least one week before you are to lead discussion (to prepare for your discussion week you may need to read several additional papers on the topic)

-         On your week, briefly (no more than 5 minutes) summarize articles and any important background information, and lead an interesting discussion

-         On other weeks, read the papers and come with your questions and thoughts

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Some examples of classics used in the past 



Lake ecosystems

Forbes 1887

Trophic dynamics

Lindeman 1942

River continuum

Vannote et al. 1980

Importance of microbial loop

Pomeroy 1974

Azam et al. 1983

Role of DOC

Wetzel 1984

Phytoplankton and nutrients

Redfield 1958

Role of nutrient ratios in structuring communities

Titman 1976

Phytoplankton succession

Reynolds 1979


Schindler 1974

Algal blooms

Fogg 1969

Diversity of plankton

Hutchinson 1961

Zooplankton community structure

Brooks and Dodson 1965

Vertical migration of zooplankton

Haney and Hall 1975


Shapiro et al. 1975

Omnivory in aquatic food webs

Sprules  and Bowerman 1988

Food chain length

Hutchinson 1959


Gorham and Sanger 1976

Whole lake manipulations


Hasler 1964

Invasive species

Zaret and Paine 1973

Nutrient spiraling

Newbold et al. 1981

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Week 1 - 31 August Introduction
Week 2 - 7 September
What is a (lake) ecosystem?
Forbes 1887
McIntosh 1998
Soranno 1999
Week 3 - 14 September
Trophic dynamics

Here's the Cook article I talked about in class

Week 4 - 21 September
Estuary and salt marsh ecosystems

Teal 1962
DeLorenzo et al. 2001

For some photos of Sapelo Island, click here
Cheryl Whritenour
Week 5 - 28 September
Phytoplankton succession
Reynolds 1980
Soininen 2005
Jacob Gillette
Week 6 - 5 October
Invasive species
Zaret 1973
Gordon 1998
Sarah Darkwa
Week 7 - 12 October
Week 8 - 19 October
Biomanipulation Shapiro et al. 1975
Albright et al. 2004
Jake Wickham
Week 9 - 26 October
River continuum concept
Vannote et al. 1980
Dettmers et al. 2001
Geof Eckerlin
Week 10 - 2 November
Zooplankton migration
Haney and Hall 1975
Ringelberg and Van Gool 2003
Jason Williams
Week 11 - 9 November
Effects of fish on zooplankton
Brooks and Dodson 1965
Romare and Hansson 2003
Cynthia Watson
Week 12 - 16 November
Food chain length
Hutchinson 1959
Williams and Martinez 2004
Week 13 - 23 November
Week 14 - 30 November
Trophic Cascade
Carpenter et al. 1985
Drenner and Hambright 2002

If you are interested in some of the background for
Drenner and Hambright 2002 paper you can also check
out: Drenner and Hambright 1999 (optional!)
Week 15 - 7 December
Wrap up
Free-wheeling discussion -- at Fagan's 5:15 PM
Questions to think about ahead of time

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Full References for Classics Listed Above

Azam, F., T. Fenchel, J.G. Field, J.S. Gray, L.A. Meyer-Reil and F. Thingstad. 1983. The ecological role of water-column microbes in the sea. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 10: 257-263.

 Brooks, J.L. and S.I. Dodson. 1965. Predation, body size and composition of plankton. Science 150: 28-35.

Fogg, G.E. 1969. The physiology of a algal nuisance. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 173: 175-189.

Forbes, S.A. 1887. The lake as a microcosm.  Bulletin of the Peoria Scientific Association, pp. 77-87. Reprinted in Bulletin of the Illinois State Natural History Survey 15 (1925): 537-550.

Gorham, E. and J.E. Sanger. 1976. Fossilized pigments as stratigraphic indicators of cultural eutrophication in Shagawa Lake, northern Minnesota. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 87: 1638-1642.

Haney, J.F. and D.J. Hall. 1975. Diel vertical migration and filter-feeding activities of Daphnia. Arch. Hydrobiol. 75: 413-441.

Hasler, A.D. 1964. Experimental limnology. BioScience 14(7): 36-38.

Hutchinson, G.E. 1959. Homage to Santa Rosalia or Why are there so many kinds of animals? Am. Nat. 93: 145-159.

Hutchinson, G.E. 1961. The paradox of the plankton. Am. Nat. 95: 137-145.

Lindeman, R.L. 1942. The trophic-dynamic of ecology. Ecology 23: 399-418.

Pomeroy, L.R. 1974. The ocean's food web, a changing paradigm. BioScience 24(9): 499-504.

Redfield, A.C. 1958. The biological control of chemical factors in the environment. American Scientist 46: 205-221.

Reynolds, C.S. 1979. Phytoplankton assemblages and their periodicity in stratifying lake systems. Holarctic Ecology 3: 141-159.

Schindler, D.W. 1974. Eutrophication and recovery in experimental lakes: Implications for lake management. Science 184: 897-899.

Shapiro, J., V. Lamarra, and M. Lynch. 1975. Biomanipulation: An ecosystem approach to lake restoration. In P.L. Brezonik and J.L. Fox (eds) Proceedings of a Symposium on Water Quality Management Through Biological Control. University of Florida, Gainsville.  pp. 85-96.

Sprules, W.G. and J.E. Bowerman. 1988. Omnivory and food chain length in zooplankton food webs. Ecology 69: 418-426.

Titman, D. 1976. Ecological competition between algae: Experimental confirmation of resource-based competition theory. Science 192: 463-465.

Vannote, R.L., G.W. Minshall, K.W. Cummins, J.R. Sedell, and C.E. Cushing. 1980. The river continuum concept. Can J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 37: 130-137.

Wetzel, R.G. 1984. Detrital dissolved and particulate organic carbon functions in aquatic ecosystems. Bull. Mar. Sci. 35: 503-509.

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