Behrend, D.F. and E.F. Patric. 1969. Influence of site disturbance and removal of shade on regeneration of deer browse. Journal of Wildlife Management, 33(2):394-398.

Abstract: The effects of burning, scarification, and partial removal of shade on deer-browse regeneration were studied in four hardwood and four mixed-growth stands in the Adirondack Mountains. Burning and scarification increased numbers of yellow birch (Betula lutea) seedlings in all mixed-growth stands from less than 10,000 per acre to 76,000 and 99,000 per acre, respectively. Identical treatments in northern hardwood stands had no consistent effect on numbers of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) seedlings. Burning resulted in the greatest variety of browse species including birches (Betula spp.), aspens (Populus spp.), willows (Salix spp.), red elder (Sambucus pubens), and eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). Growth of browse occurred only where either high or low shade had been removed, and where deer browsing pressure was reduced or eliminated. Observations from other study areas indicated that browse will develop well under deer densities approximating 14 per square mile, but will be repressed by densities of 27 per square mile. Thus, while establishment of a variety of seedlings of browse species is dependent upon site treatment, subsequent development of browse is dependent upon removal of either high shade (as in logging) or low shade (as in timber stand improvement), accompanied by maintenance of reduced deer populations.