Farnsworth, C.E. and N.A. Richards. 1971. Effects of cutting level on regeneration of northern hardwoods protected from deer. Journal of Forestry, 69(4):230-233.

Reprinted from the Journal of Forestry 69(4):230-233, published by the Society of American Foresters, 5400 Grosvenor Lane, Bethesda, MD 20814-2198. Not for further reproduction.

Abstract: A hardwood cutting study was established in 1957 in the central Adirondack Mountains of New York, with 15 blocks at five treatment levels from clearcut to uncut. White-tailed deer have so influenced the regeneration of desirable hardwoods in this study that effects of cutting level can be accurately evaluated only within deer exclosures. fifty-one two-milacre exclosure plots measured 12 seasons after treatments indicated satisfactory regeneration of desirable species, primarily sugar maple and yellow birch, over a wide range of cutting treatment.