Garner, D. L.  1994. Population Ecology of moose in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada.  Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse,   101 pp.

Abstract:
Population dynamics of moose (Alces alces) were investigated in Algonquin Provincial Park based on long-term studies of moose population abundance and factors influencing demographics, 1976-94.  In addition, intensive monitoring was conducted from 1990-93 on 76 radio-tagged animals (27 adults and 1 yearling female, 47 neonates) and 16 untagged neonates to determine reproductive performance, survival rates, and cause-specific mortality agents.  Aerial survey methods indicate that the detection of ±10% change in population abundance is possible.  Reproductive performance from 1990-93 shows average production of 0.95 calves/cow and twinning rate of 18% which suggests Algonquin Park’s population may be near or at ecological carrying capacity.  Estimated yearling productivity was within the range reported in the literature for moose populations across North America.  Annual survival rate for adults (0.94) and estimated yearling survival (0.88) correspond to rates observed in other populations across North America.  However, annual calf survival (0.61) is high compared to other populations where both black bear (Ursus americanus) and wolves (Canis lupus) are sympatric.  Winter weather had not played a significant role in moose population dynamics in the past 18 years.  Winter tick (Dermacentor albipictus) causes mortality in both young and adults, but does not appear to have a significant influence on overall population change in either the current year or subsequent years.  Long-term population trends and growth rates appear to be mediated primarily by ecological carrying capacity.  Increasing visitor use of Algonquin Park and changes in policy allowing Native harvest may place additional stress on the population, thus warranting continued monitoring.