Kelty, M.J. and R.D. Nyland. 1981. Regenerating Adirondack northern hardwoods by shelterwood cutting and control of deer density. Journal of Forestry 79(1):22-26.

Reprinted from the Journal of Forestry 79(1):22-26, published by the Society of American Foresters, 5400 Grosvenor Lane, Bethesda, MD 20814-2198. Not for further reproduction.

Abstract: Shelterwood cuttings to regenerate old-growth northern hardwoods in the Adirondack Mountains reduced the overstory to 50 square feet per acre of basal area. Precutting application of herbicides had killed understory vegetation composed predominantly of American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.). Intensive hunting had reduced deer density from 27 to 14 per square mile. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) dominated regeneration two years after seed cutting, but yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton) was tallest on more sample milacre plots six and ten years after seed cutting. At age 10, tallest saplings averaged 12 feet in height and 0.8 inch d.b.h., and 4,800 stems per acre had grown above 8 feet. Beech was present only in small numbers and tallest on no more than 20 percent of plots at all ages. Seed cutting, herbicide treatments, and deer density control successfully favored yellow birch and sugar maple over less desirable beech.