Okoniewski, J.C. and R.E. Chambers. 1984. Coyote vocal response to an electronic siren and human howling. Journal of Wildlife Management, 48(1):217-222.

Abstract: Elicited coyote (Canis latrans) vocalizations offer an alternative to the scent-station technique for assessing trends in coyote populations. The methodology developed by Alcorn (1946) has been used in several investigations designed to identify sources of variation in this approach. Coyote vocal responsiveness to an electronic siren has been reported to vary with season (D.A. Quinton, unpubl. resp., U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv., Denver, CO, 1976; Goff 1979) and barometric pressure change (Wolfe 1974, Wenger and Cringan 1978). Wenger and Cringan (1978) reported large individual differences in the responsiveness of radio-marked coyotes in Colorado. The results of recent studies of coyote social ecology (Ryden 1975, Cammenzind 1978, Bekoff and Wells 1980) and vocal communication (Lehner 1978) suggest that individual responsiveness also may vary with social status. The objective of our study was to identify sources of variation in the response of coyotes in the Adirondack Mountains of New York.