Ray, D.G. 1997. Patterns of development in three Adirondack northern hardwood stands following herbicide treatment and shelterwood cutting. M.S. Thesis, State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, 139 pp.

Abstract: A combination of remeasurement and chronosequence techniques were used to examine patterns of early development in three Adirondack northern hardwood stands for a period of 4 to 26 years following shelterwood seed cutting to 35 to 65% canopy cover. Mist blowing and stem injection of herbicide controlled a dense American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) understory in these stands, leaving them devoid of advance regeneration. Deer (Odocoileus virginianus borealis Miller) populations had also been reduced by hunting and through natural losses. Both treatments have proven necessary for successful regeneration of diverse and commercially viable stands in the region. Cohort development was described as number so stems by size class from time of cutting. Total stems > 1' tall and > 1" dbh followed distinct patterns of development among stands, while those > 3' and > 6' tall were more variable. Total stems > 1' tall peaked around 5 years after seed cutting, suggesting most new individuals had arrived and begun to grow by that time. By 10 years, stems > 1' tall were declining substantially, indicating crown closure had led to stratification and competition-induced mortality within the new cohort. By 20 yrs, total stems > 1" dbh were at a maximum. By 25 yrs, the numbers of stems > 1" dbh had begun to decline. Non-linear regression techniques were used to model the consistent patterns of development observed between stands. Functions describing the composite behavior of total stems by size class are presented, and a biological rationale for the observed patterns is discussed.