Sage, R.W., Jr. 1983. An evaluation of several herbicide applications used for site preparation in northern hardwood stands. M.S. Thesis, SUNY-ESF, Syracuse, 160 pp.

Abstract: Eighteen experimental herbicide applications were evaluated to determine their applicability for use as site preparation treatments in hardwood and hardwood-conifer stands on the Huntington Wildlife Forest located in the central Adirondack region of New York State. Efficacy levels of the various treatments on beech (Fagus grandifolia), witchhobble (Viburnum alnifolium), striped maple (Acer pensylvanicum), red spruce (Picea rubens) and desirable hardwood species occurring in the understory of the treated stands were determined. The effects of understory vegetation height and density upon efficacy levels were also evaluated. Results of the most effective experimental treatments are compared to those of past treatments using 2,4,5-T. The highest degree of control of understory beech on hardwood sites (96.4 percent kill) resulted form the September application of Krenite (fosamine) applied at a rate of 0.75 gal/acre. Experimental treatments using Roundup (glyphosate) and Tordon 101M (picloram and 2-4D) both applied at a rate of 0.47 gal/acre also resulted in acceptable (> 80 percent kill) control of beech and hardwood sites. Glyphosate, applied at a rate of 0.23 gal/acre, was the only experimental treatment which resulted in an acceptable level of control of beech on hardwood-conifer sites. This application resulted in a 20.1 percent kill of understory red spruce on the same site. Total costs associated with the effective experimental herbicide treatments ranged from $32.54/acre to $47.65/acre. Recommendations relating to future applications of herbicides for site preparation in hardwood and hardwood-conifer stands at the Huntington Wildlife Forest are offered.