Tierson, W.C. 1969. Controlling deer use of forest vegetation with electric fences. Journal of Wildlife Management 33(4):922-926.

Abstract: In 1961, an electric fence to control deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was erected around a 255-acre part of a 500-acre stand of cut-over northern hardwood forest in the Adirondack Mountains. In addition to the main fence, a 3-acre area was enclosed with an outrigger fence, as recommended by the Vermont Fish and Game Department, to test its effectiveness compared to the main fence. Observations of the outrigger fence indicated that it effectively repelled deer during early winter but was ineffective after 6 inches of snow had accumulated. High resistance to ground in dry snow was measured and the fence was modified by adding wires at ground potential. The main fence was modified in 1962 to include ground wires, and in 1963 to replace copper wire with copper-clad steel wire. Track counts and direct observations indicated that the electric fence effectively repelled many deer although numerous observations of deer penetrating the fence were made. Vegetative tallies indicated that deer browsing was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced inside the fence. Cost per acre over the study period was $22.47. The efficiency of the electric fence in controlling deer use was considered too marginal to recommend its use as a management tool, and its cost was relatively too high.