Tierson, W.C., G.F. Mattfeld, R.W. Sage, Jr., and D.F. Behrend. 1985. Seasonal movements and home ranges of white-tailed deer in the Adirondacks. Journal of Wildlife Management, 49(3):760-769.

Abstract: Movements and home ranges of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were studied for 8 years in the Adirondack Mountains of New York. Deer were box-trapped on their winter or summer ranges, and 105 radio-collared animals and 266 marked with ear streamer-collar combinations were released. Movements from summer to winter range were associated with snow depths of about 38 cm. Seasonal home-range size among sexes did not differ (P > 0.05), and females had a larger (P < 0.05) summer than winter range. With few exceptions, females and adult males used the same home range from year to year, and we did not identify any range separation between sexes. Range fidelity to a specific area was less pronounced in winter than in summer. The sizes of summer and autumn home ranges of females and adult males did not differ (P > 0.05). Most 1 l/2-2 1/2-year-old males made dispersal movements. Adult bucks showed a shift in their center of activity in autumn. Nine social groups of deer identified from 366 marked animals had different movement patterns and exhibited range fidelity and exclusiveness (between groups). Seasonal movements and home ranges of deer were influenced by timber harvesting on both summer and winter range. Individual summer home-range selection was influenced primarily by social factors and not habitat type. Management of winter habitat not being used by deer may be cost-ineffective unless fidelity to a specific range can be altered. Intensive herd management may require cooperation of several landowners, and management practices should be directed at a specific deer population to be most effective.