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Course Descriptions

Web Catalog Information Subject to Change

The web version of the ESF Catalog is updated as needed throughout the year. To view the version officially associated with a particular date of entry to the College, please refer to the appropriate catalog of record.

Course Descriptions

EFB

EFB 101 General Biology I: Organismal Biology and Ecology (3)
Three hours of lecture per week. Introductory exploration of biological principles at ecosystem, population, and organismal levels. Emphasis on form, function, diversity, ecology and evolution of living organisms. Fall.
Co-requisite: EFB 102.

EFB 102 General Biology I Laboratory (1)
Three hours of laboratory per week. Major concepts of organismal biology and ecology will be reinforced with hands-on laboratory exercises and required field trips exploring the form, function, diversity, ecology, and evolution of living organisms. Fall.
Co-requisite: EFB 101.

EFB 103 General Biology II: Cell Biology and Genetics (3)
Three hours of lecture per week. Organization and function of living cells. Key topics include biological molecules, organelle structure and function, gene expression, cell division, metabolism, photosynthesis, cell signaling, genomics, and population genetics. Spring.
Co-requisite: EFB 104.

EFB 104 General Biology II Laboratory (1)
Three hours of laboratory per week. Major concepts of cell biology and genetics will be reinforced with hands-on laboratory exercises using analytical and experimental techniques such as light microscopy, chromatography, electrophoresis, enzyme assays, aseptic culture techniques, and transformation of bacterial cells. Spring.
Co-requisite: EFB 103.

EFB 120 The Global Environment and the Evolution of Human Society (3)
Three hours of lecture per week. An integrated overview of large-scale environmental issues and their relation to the development of human societies and resource-use strategies over time. Focus is on population growth and societal pressures on physical and biotic resources. Topics include energy-use issues, causes and socio-economic implications of climate change, pollution, and loss of biodiversity. Fall and Spring.

EFB 132 Orientation Seminar: Environmental and Forest Biology (1)
One hour of lecture, discussion and/or exercises per week. Introduction to campus resources available to ensure academic success. Introduction to EFB as a field of inquiry. Fall.

EFB 200 Physics of Life (3)
Three hours of lecture and discussion per week. Introduction to basic principles of physics from a perspective of biological function, structure and adaptation. Fall.

EFB 202 Ecological Monitoring and Biodiversity Assessment (3)
Forty-five hours of lecture, laboratory and field instruction per week for three weeks. An introduction to the biodiversity of northeastern North American terrestrial, wetland, and aquatic communities with a focus on vascular plants and invertebrate and vertebrate animals. Incorporates practical field exercises designed to acquaint the student with problem solving. Summer, Cranberry Lake Biological Station.

EFB 210 Diversity of Life I (3)
Two hours of lecture and 3 hours of laboratory instruction per week. Introductory exploration of the diversity of life at local, regional and global scales. Hands-on laboratory exercises explore the form, function, diversity, ecology, and evolution of living organisms, focusing on viruses, fungi and plants. Fall.
Prerequisite(s): One year of introductory biology.

EFB 211 Diversity of Life II (3)
Two hours of lecture and 3 hours of laboratory instruction per week. Introductory exploration of the diversity of life at local, regional and global scales. Hands-on laboratory exercises explore the form, function, diversity, ecology, and evolution of living organisms, focusing on microbes, protistans and animals. Spring.
Prerequisite(s): EFB 101 and 102 or equivalent year of introductory Biology. Note: Credits will not be granted for both undergraduate and graduate versions of the same course.

EFB 217 Peoples, Plagues, and Pests (3)
Three hours of lecture/discussion per week. Impacts of selected diseases and pests on the development and course of human civilizations. Emphasis is on the impacts of plagues and pests on non-western civilizations. Spring.

EFB 220 Urban Ecology (3)
Two hours lecture/discussion, three hours of outdoor laboratory per week. Explores the city from an ecosystems perspective. Addresses the role and importance of science, engineering, the design professions, and community participation in creating livable communities. Environmental equity and justice are addressed. Fall.

EFB 296 Special Topics in Environmental and Forest Biology (1 - 3)
Experimental, interdisciplinary or special coursework at the freshman or sophomore levels. Subject matter and course format vary from semester to semester or offering on the basis of needs and objectives of the course. Fall or Spring.

EFB 298 Research Apprenticeship in Environmental Biology (1 - 3)
Full- or part-time engagement as volunteer or employee on research project having environmental biology focus consistent with the studentís educational and professional goals. Tenure at SUNYESF or outside institution. EFB-based faculty member serves as studentís sponsor. Study plan outlining the apprenticeshipís educational goals completed prior to its commencement. Record of activities and performance assessment by faculty sponsor generated after apprenticeship termination. Grading Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory. Fall, Spring, Summer.
Prerequisite(s): Permission of Instructor

EFB 303 Introductory Environmental Microbiology (4)
Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. An introduction to the biology of microorganisms and viruses and a study of their interactions with other microbes and macroorganisms. Fall.

EFB 305 Indigenous Issues and the Environment (3)
Three hours of lecture and discussion per week. Introduction to perspectives of indigenous people on environmental and natural resources management issues, including tribal forestry, fisheries, biocultural restoration, conservation strategies, climate change and treaty rights. Integrates scientific and indigenous worldviews and knowledge systems. Spring.
Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 305 and EFB 605.

EFB 307 Principles of Genetics (3)
Three hours of lecture and discussion per week. A general course covering concepts of genetics and evolution basic to upper-division biology and biochemistry courses. Includes the inheritance and analysis of Mendelian and quantitative traits, the chemical nature of the gene and its action, genetic engineering, the genetic structure of populations and their evolution. Numerical methods for characterizing and analyzing genetic data are introduced. Fall.

EFB 308 Principles of Genetics Laboratory (1)
Three hours of auto-tutorial laboratory per week. Experiments with plants and animals and computer simulation exercises demonstrate the basic principles of inheritance of Mendelian traits and changes in populations caused by major forces in evolution or by breeding procedures. Numerical methods for characterizing quantitative traits and for testing hypotheses are introduced. Fall.
Co-requisite: EFB 307.

EFB 311 Principles of Evolution (3)
Three hours of lecture or discussion per week. An introduction to the fundamental processes driving evolution (genetic drift, gene flow, mutation, sexual selection, and natural selection), the evolution of life-histories, trade-offs, and phenotypic plasticity. Macroevolutionary concepts covered include speciation, extinction, co-evolution, and the reconstruction of phylogenies. Spring.
Prerequisites: EFB 307 and EFB 320, or equivalents.

EFB 312 Introduction to Personal Environmental Interpretation Methods (3)
Two hours of lecture and 2 hours of recitation per week. One required Saturday field trip. Personal interpretation teaches a variety of face-to-face techniques used to connect the public with environmental science by providing an introduction to history of interpretation, popular interpretive and environmental education activities and curriculum, evaluation of programs, and lesson plans. Explores and illustrates the research and philosophy of environmental interpretation. Credit will not be granted for both EFB 312 and EFB 512. Fall.
Prerequisite(s): EFB 320, junior or senior standing, or permission of instructor

EFB 320 General Ecology (4)
Three hours of lecture and one three-hour field trip/laboratory per week. An introduction to plant and animal ecology, including concepts and techniques in population ecology, community dynamics, physiological and behavioral ecology, biogeography, ecosystem ecology, nutrient cycling and energy flow. Ecological management applications, human ecological impacts and problems are considered. Fall.

EFB 325 Cell Biology (3)
Three hours of lecture per week. Morphology and physiology of cells. Emphasis on macromolecule structure and function, cell division, gene expression, cell signaling, biochemical pathways, transport, metabolism, and motility. Spring.
Prerequisite: One year of introductory biology, one semester of organic chemistry, Genetics.

EFB 326 Diversity of Plants (3)
Two hours of lecture and one three-hour laboratory per week. An evolutionary survey of plants from unicellular prokaryotes to multicellular eukaryotes. Coverage includes the algae, fungi, bryophytes, lower vascular plants, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms. Spring.

EFB 327 Adirondack Flora (3)
Two hours of lecture, and eight hours of field work and discussion each day for two weeks. An integrated field and laboratory course in the identification of vascular plants and recognition of ecological characteristics of major plant species and communities of the Adirondack Mountain region. Satisfies elective field study requirement in Environmental and Forest Biology. Appropriate for upper and lower division undergraduate students seeking instruction in plant identification and ecology. Summer, Cranberry Lake Biological Station.
Prerequisite: General botany or general biology.

EFB 335 Dendrology (2)
One hour of lecture per week and one three-hour laboratory/field trip. Field study, identification and major characteristics of important forest trees of North America. Fall.
Prerequisite: Open only to students in the forest engineering curriculum.

EFB 336 Dendrology (3)
Two hours of lecture per week and one three-hour laboratory/field trip. Field study, identification, natural history and elementary silvics of important forest trees of North America. Fall.

EFB 337 Field Ethnobotany (3)
Two hours of lecture per week and six to eight hours of field work and discussion each day for two weeks. A field-based introduction to the identification and traditional cultural uses of plants in the Adirondack region for food, medicine and fiber. Topics include plant identification, traditional ecological knowledge and use of ecological and ethnobotanical methods. Satisfies elective field course requirement in programs offered by Department of Environmental and Forest Biology. Cranberry Lake Biological Station. Summer.
Prerequisite: EFB 226 or equivalent.

EFB 340 Forest and Shade Tree Pathology (3)
Two hours of lecture per week and three hours of auto-tutorial laboratory. Major diseases of forest, shade and ornamental trees; and deterioration of forest products, with emphasis on disease identification, principles of disease development, effects of disease on the host, and practical control measures. Spring.

EFB 342 Fungal Diversity and Ecology (3)
Two hours of lecture, and eight hours of fieldwork and discussion each day for two weeks. An integrated field and laboratory course designed to provide an introduction to the collection, identification and ecology of fungi and fungal-like organisms. Included in the course are Oomycetes (Kingdom Straminipila) and Myxomycetes (Kingdom Protista), as well as the more familiar groups of Kingdom Fungi. Satisfies field study elective requirement in Environmental and Forest Biology. Summer, Cranberry Lake Biological Station.
Prerequisite: General biology or general botany.

EFB 345 Forest Health (3)
Seven and one-half hours of lecture and 45 hours of field exercises per week for two weeks. Required in the Forest Health major, but open to others. Examines the varied ecological roles and impacts of pests and pathogens in managed and unmanaged northern forests. Students learn to collect, identify, and study forest insects and pathogens using inventory, survey, analytic methods, and independent research. Summer, Cranberry Lake Biological Station.
Prerequisites: One year of general biology, and EFB 202 or equivalents.

EFB 351 Forest Entomology (3)
Two hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Basic insect diversity, ecology and pest management with an emphasis on insect pests of forested ecosystems. Designed for students in Environmental Biology, Forest Health and Forest Resources Management. Fall, even years.
Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 351 and EFB 551.

EFB 352 Entomology (3)
Two hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Basic insect diversity, ecology and pest management with an emphasis on common insect pests of the northeastern U.S. Designed for students in Environmental Biology and Forest Health. Fall, odd years.
Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 352 and EFB 552.

EFB 355 Invertebrate Zoology (4)
Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Structure, function, classification and evolution of invertebrates. Emphasis on functional biology and ecological interactions. Spring.

EFB 360 Epidemiology (3)
Three hours of lecture/discussion per week. Introduction to the study of disease in populations and factors influencing disease occurrence. Case studies explore population measures of disease, clinical measures and causation. Emphasizes quantitative approaches, study design, ethics, intervention and implementation. Spring.
Prerequisite(s): One year of Introductory Biology, one Statistics course or equivalent by permission.

EFB 381 Vertebrate Museum Techniques (2)
One hour of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Theory and practice of vertebrate museum methods, with emphasis on the preparation and curation of vertebrate specimens. Spring.
Prerequisites: At least junior status and permission of instructor. Limited to 10 students.

EFB 384 Field Herpetology (3)
Two hours of lecture, and eight hours of field work and discussion each day for two weeks. An integrated field and laboratory course in the identification, natural history, ecology, and conservation of amphibians and reptiles of the Adirondack region. Satisfies field study elective requirement in Environmental and Forest Biology. Summer, Cranberry Lake Biological Station.
Prerequisite: General biology or general zoology.

EFB 385 Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy (4)
Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Analysis of vertebrate structure, with emphasis on comparative study of organ systems. Includes evolution of form and function, major adaptive patterns and phylogenetic relationships in vertebrates. Spring.

EFB 388 Ecology of Adirondack Fishes (3)
Two hours of lecture, and eight hours of fieldwork and discussion each day for two weeks. An integrated field and laboratory course in the identification of fish and recognition of ecological characteristics of major fish species and communities of Adirondack waters. Satisfies a component of the field study elective requirement in Environmental and Forest Biology. Summer, Cranberry Lake Biological Station.
Prerequisite: General zoology or general biology.

EFB 390 Wildlife Ecology and Management (4)
Three hours of lecture and one hour of recitation per week. A study of the ecological principles governing wild animal populations and their habitats, and the relationship of these principles to management programs and decisions. Directed primarily toward students majoring in wildlife science, conservation biology, and forest resources management. Fall.
Prerequisite or co-requisite: General ecology.

EFB 400 Toxic Health Hazards (3)
Three hours of lecture per week. Introduction to contemporary concepts of toxicology and to scientific basis for regulations and personal decisions about toxic health hazards. For students in natural or social sciences of environmental relevance. Topics include xenobiotic load, co-evolution of plant/animal defenses, chemical interactions, animal tests and risk assessment. Fall.
Prerequisites: General biology and general chemistry. Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 400 and EFB 600.

EFB 404 Natural History Museums and Modern Science (3)
Three hours lecture per week and one week field trip. Examination of the major roles of contemporary natural history museums as places of research and public education. Emphasis on research, exhibits, collections and programs. Organized instructional visit to natural history museums during a 1-week trip. Travel expenses apply.
Prerequisites: EFB 417, or permission of instructor

EFB 405 Literature of Natural History (2)
One hour lecture and one hour discussion/seminar per week. This course examines key examples of the literature of natural history from the late 18th century to present. Major influences, perspectives and contexts associated with each selection are treated. Spring.
Prerequisites: General biology and ecology.

EFB 406 Great Naturalist Seminar (1)
One hour of seminar per week. This course examines the lives and contributions of selected, significant naturalists from the late 18th century to present. Perspectives, contexts and contemporaries of the naturalists are treated in seminar format. Basic and enriched presentation skills are practiced to encourage personal understanding and enhance professionalism. Fall.
Prerequisites: General biology and ecology.

EFB 411 Research Methods: Understanding the Adirondack Ecosystem (3)
Two hours of lecture/discussion and one three hour field trip per week. An introduction to biodiversity, forest and wildlife management, invasive species, climate science, and the role of humans in the context of the Adirondack Park. Biotic and abiotic drivers of the Adirondack ecosystem, field data collection methods and policy and sustainability are considered. Explores the role of science in natural resource decision-making and the uses and limitations of ecological data and planning tools. Requires concurrent registration with other Sustaining the Park courses. Fall, Newcomb Campus.
Prerequisite(s): General Biology or equivalent coursework Co-requisites: EST 401, EST 402, EST 403, EST 404

EFB 412 Introduction to Chemical Ecology (3)
Three hours of lecture with discussion per week. Centers on chemical signals among organisms from microbes to man as they affect ecology, physiology and behavior; and as they can be utilized for agriculture, pest management and animal husbandry. Spring.
Prerequisite: Organic chemistry (one year). Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 412 and FCH 440.

EFB 413 Introduction to Conservation Biology (3)
Two hours of lecture and one hour of discussion/recitation per week. As an introduction to the discipline of conservation biology, the course seeks to demonstrate how basic biological science can be integrated with social, economic and political perspectives to achieve the goals of biological conservation. Lectures will provide students with an understanding of processes that generate and erode biological diversity. Discussion/recitation exercises will provide students with hands-on experience and skill development in solving the sorts of complex problems typically encountered by conservation biologists. Spring.
Pre- or co-requisite(s): EFB 307, EFB 320.

EFB 414 Senior Synthesis in Conservation Biology (3)
Three hours of discussion/seminar per week. Students research a topic in conservation biology, then practice critical thinking and discourse by presenting seminars and participating in discussions. The focus is on integrating knowledge from previous coursework in biology, management and policy for the wise use and conservation of biological diversity. Spring.
Pre- or co-requisite: EFB 413.

EFB 415 Ecological Biogeochemistry (3)
Three hours of lecture and discussion per week. Investigation of the principles of biogeochemistry in ecosystems. The transformations and fluxes of elements in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems including global cycles are emphasized. Fall.
Prerequisites: Courses in general ecology and introductory chemistry.

EFB 417 Non-Personal Environmental Interpretive Methods (3)
Three hours of lecture per week. Applications of environmental interpretation theory and methods applied to nature center programming, science education, and various fields of resource management emphasizing procedures for creating non-personal interpretive media (e.g., brochures, wayside exhibts, etc.). Focus on service-learning through involvement with an outside interpretive agency. Spring.
Prerequisites: EFB 312, or permission of the instructor Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 417 and EFB 617.

EFB 418 Interpretation of Field Biology (5)
This five-week residential course offers introductions to Adirondack flora and fauna in a regional context as subjects for various interpretive programs and products such as nature walks and trailside presentations, and slide presentations. The application of professional interpretive techniques and the inclusion of natural history in science education are highlights. Summer.
Prerequisite: EFB 320 or permission of instructor. Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 418 and EFB 618.

EFB 419 Problem-solving in Conservation Biology (3)
Two hours of lecture/recitation and three hours of laboratory per week. ĒHands-onĒ experience in problem-solving, using methods and concepts related to a wide range of biodiversity conservation issues. Includes management of genetic diversity, analysis and modeling of populations, ecosystem management, and the public policy process, and of methods of information management, analysis and communication used by conservation professionals. Spring.
Prerequisite: EFB 413 or equivalent; major in Conservation Biology or permission of instructor.

EFB 420 Internship in Environmental and Forest Biology (1 - 5)
Full- or part-time engagement as volunteer or employee in professional experience having environmental biology focus. Tenure at outside institution under guidance of external supervisor, but with EFB-based faculty sponsor. Requires initial study plan outlining educational goals, plus record of activities and supervisorís assessment of studentís performance upon completion. Grading satisfactory/ Unsatisfactory. Fall, Spring, Summer.
Prerequisite(s): Permission of Instructor.

EFB 423 Marine Ecology (4)
Three hours of lecture per week, two hours of laboratory per week and one weekend field trip. Introduction to marine organisms and systems using the principles of population, community and ecosystem ecology. Hands-on demonstrations, discussions, presentations, lectures, and field trip allow study of major marine habitats (e.g., intertidal, pelagic, coral reefs, deep sea), and the increasing human impact on marine environments. Small fee charged for mandatory weekend field trip. Spring, even years.
Prerequisites: One year general biology and general ecology or equivalents. Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 423 and EFB 623.

EFB 424 Limnology: Study of Inland Waters (3)
Three hours of lecture per week, with some additional hands-on activities during the semester. An introduction to the geology, physics, chemistry and biology of inland waters (lotic and lentic). The course focuses on inland waters as integrated ecosystems and explores the effects of natural and anthropogenic perturbations on these systems. Fall.
Prerequisites: Senior status, introductory courses in physics and chemistry, and EFB 320, or permission of instructor. Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 424 and EFB 624.

EFB 427 Plant Anatomy and Development (3)
Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory instruction per week. This course offers a dynamic approach to the study of plant anatomy by understanding how cells, tissues and organs are formed using concepts and tools from genetics and molecular biology. Laboratory involves hands-on activities using current techniques. Fall.
Prerequisite: one year introductory biology. Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 427 and EFB 627.

EFB 428 Mycorrhizal Ecology (3)
Two hours of combined lecture/discussion and 3 hours of laboratory per week. Introduction to mycorrhizal symbioses, their role in plant nutrient uptake, and function in plant community dynamics. Emphasis is on important historical and current literature, and on learning methodological approaches used in mycorrhizal research. Fall, even years.
Prerequisites: General ecology or plant ecology, genetics. Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 428 and EFB 628.

EFB 435 Flowering Plants: Diversity, Evolution, and Systematics (3)
Two hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Diversity, evolution, and systematics of flowering plants with emphasis on flower structures and reproductive strategies. Flowering plant identification skills are built from examination of a broad diversity of species from major globallydistributed families with particular focus on flora of the Northeastern U.S. [Fall]
Prerequisite(s): General Biology I and II or equivalent and at least junior standing.

EFB 439 Forest Health Monitoring (3)
Three hours of lecture/discussion per week on theoretical and applied aspects of forest health monitoring including concepts, data acquisition, analysis, quality assurance, interpretation and reporting. Spring.
Pre- or co-requisite(s): Courses in forest resources management, ecology, pathology and entomology.

EFB 440 Mycology (3)
Two hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Fundamentals of the morphology, taxonomy, life histories, ecology and symbiotic relationships of fungi. Fall.
Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 440 and EFB 640.

EFB 444 Biodiversity and Geography of Nature (3)
Three hours of lecture per week. Earth history (plate tectonics, etc.), topography and geographic variation in environmental conditions influence species and communities. Major geographic patterns in biological diversity and strategies for conserving native species are presented. Fall, even years.
Prerequisite: EFB 320 or permission of instructor. Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 444 and EFB 644.

EFB 445 Plant Ecology and Global Change (3)
Three hours of lecture and discussion per week. Impacts of global changes in climate, biodiversity, land-use, and biogeochemical cycles on structure and function of terrestrial plant communities and ecosystems. Examined scales range from ecophysiological processes occurring in individual leaves to global patterns of primary productivity and biodiversity. Spring.
Prerequisite: EFB 320 General Ecology or equivalent. Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 445 and EFB 645.

EFB 446 Ecology of Mosses (3)
Two hours of lecture and one three-hour laboratory or field trip per week. A study of taxonomic diversity, ecological adaptations and the roles of bryophytes in ecosystems. Spring.
Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 446 and EFB 646.

EFB 453 Parasitology (3)
Two hours of lecture/discussion per week, three hours laboratory per week. Diversity, ecology, and impact of parasites of ecological, medical, and veterinary importance. Emphasis on identification, life history, control, host-parasite interactions and evolution, population patterns, and parasite communities. Fall.
Prerequisite(s): One year of Introductory Biology, Ecology. Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 453 and EFB 653.

EFB 462 Animal Physiology: Environmental and Ecological (3)
Three hours of lecture, discussion and/or exercises per week. An introduction to the physiology of adaptation to the physical and biotic environments, including animal energetics, biology of body size and physiological constraints on animal life history. Fall.
Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 462 and EFB 662.

EFB 480 Principles of Animal Behavior (4)
Three hours of lecture and one hour of recitation per week. Basic principles of animal behavior and the scientific process. Proximate and ultimate mechanisms controlling the behavior of animals including humans, with an emphasis on evolution. Spring.
Prerequisite(s): A full year of general biology.

EFB 482 Ornithology (4)
Three hours of lecture and discussion, three hours of laboratory/field trip per week and additional mandatory field trips. Students become familiar with all aspects of birds: taxonomy, structure, function, ecology, population dynamics, conservation and identification. Emphasizes identification of the birds of the eastern United States by sight, and the common species by sound. Exposure to birds worldwide. Fall.
Prerequisite: General biology and general ecology.

EFB 483 Mammal Diversity (4)
Three hours of classroom instruction and three hours of laboratory per week. Describes the evolutionary development, ecology and diversity of mammals world-wide and within New York State. Laboratory exercises and discussions complement lectures, providing hands-on experience in identification, adaptive morphology, and techniques in field mammalogy. Spring.
Prerequisites: Junior standing in EFB.

EFB 484 Mammalian Winter Ecology (3)
Ten-day field course conducted during one weekend in February and during March break in the Adirondack Mountains of New York. The course explores ecological adaptations of mammals for surviving the winter in northern latitudes. Students are in the field daily. There is a course fee. Spring.
Prerequisites: EFB 202, EFB 320.

EFB 485 Herpetology (3)
Two hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. An introduction to the structure, function, ecology, behavior, development and distribution of amphibians and reptiles as they relate to the systematics of the various groups. Fall.

EFB 486 Ichthyology (3)
Two hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. An introduction to the anatomy, physiology, ecology, behavior and taxonomy of fishes. Spring.

EFB 487 Fisheries Science and Management (3)
Three hours of lecture per week. Introduction to biology, ecology, quantitative assessments, conservation, and management of fish species targeted in fisheries. Includes models and empirical studies of population dynamics, life history theory, bioenergetics, population sampling, growth, mortality, production, exploitation, ecological effects, and approaches to fisheries management. A practicum (EFB 488) is optional. Fall.
Prerequisite: Calculus and either Limnology or Ichthyology or permission of instructor. Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 487 and EFB 687.

EFB 488 Fisheries Science Practicum (1)
Three hours of laboratory per week with 2 weekend field trips. Practical experience in fisheries science, including introduction to collecting techniques, data collection, analysis, and use of models. A nominal fee is charged to defray costs on weekend trips. Designed as a complement to EFB 487. Fall, even years.
Co-requisite: EFB 487 (may be taken in a previous year).

EFB 491 Applied Wildlife Science (3)
Two hours of discussion and three hours of laboratory per week, plus a field project and professional experience. Practical experience with tools used to monitor and manage wildlife populations. Designed for biology students wishing to pursue careers as wildlife biologists. Spring.
Prerequisite: EFB 390.

EFB 492 Senior Synthesis in Aquatic and Fisheries Science (1)
One hour of seminar per week. Students will develop a synthesis by defining a scientific hypothesis on an aquatic topic of interest, gathering/analyzing data from the literature or elsewhere, interpreting findings, and presenting their work both orally and in a written technical report. That synthesis will relate to prior coursework and current issues in aquatic sciences. Spring.
Prerequisite: Senior standing in the Aquatic and Fisheries Science major.

EFB 493 Wildlife Habitats and Populations (4)
Three hours of lecture/discussion and one three-hour laboratory per week; one Saturday field trip required. Application of ecological concepts, including succession and population biology to wildlife management planning and program assessment. Students are exposed to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service habitat evaluation procedures and fundamentals of population modeling. Fall.
Prerequisites: EFB 491 or permission of instructor. Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 493 and EFB 693.

EFB 494 Senior Synthesis in Forest Health (1)
One hour of discussion or seminar per week. This course integrates student internships (EFB 420) or research experiences (EFB 498) with broader issues in forest health through readings and discussions of current literature and oral presentations. Students present a 1 hr seminar that details their internship or research experiences during the previous summer, and that relates this work to prior coursework and current issues in forest health. Fall.
Prerequisite(s): EFB 420 or EFB 498

EFB 495 Undergraduate Experience in College Teaching (1 - 3)
An opportunity for qualified, senior undergraduate students to gain experience in fully supervised, college-level teaching of the type they can expect to perform in graduate school. Students assist the instructor in the preparation and presentation of laboratory or recitation material in an undergraduate course. A maximum of 6 credit hours of EFB 495, and 3 credit hours relating to any single assisted course, may apply toward graduation requirements. Fall and Spring.
Prerequisites: Previous completion of the course being assisted (with a grade of B or higher), a GPA at ESF of 3.0 or higher, and permission of instructor.

EFB 496 Topics in Environmental and Forest Biology (1 - 3)
Experimental, interdisciplinary or special coursework in biology for undergraduate students. Subject matter and method of presentation varies from semester to semester. May be repeated for additional credit. Fall or Spring.

EFB 497 Seminar (1)
One hour of presentations and discussion per week. A topic in environmental and forest biology will be emphasized and its importance to contemporary issues will be addressed. Fall or Spring.

EFB 498 Research Problems in Environmental and Forest Biology (1 - 5)
Independent research by advanced undergraduate student in topic related to environmental biology, conducted at SUNY-ESF or outside institution. EFB-based faculty member serves as studentís research sponsor; EFB-based faculty member or scientist at outside institution serves as research supervisor. Final written report to academic sponsor serves as basis for grade. Fall, Spring, Summer.
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

EFB 500 Forest Biology Field Trip (1 - 3)
A five- to 10-day trip to: 1) agencies engaged in biological research, management and administration; or 2) regions or areas of unusual biological interest. A final report is required. Additional fees required to cover cost of travel and lodging during field portion of course. Fall or Spring.

EFB 502 Ecology and Management of Invasive Species (3)
Three hours of discussion/lecture per week. Explores the growing problem of invasive species as a leading threat to global biodiversity. Topics include: invasion pathways and mechanisms, community resistance, biological control, effects on ecosystems, law and policy as management tools, prediction and risk assessment, and interactions with anthropogenic environmental change. Spring.

EFB 504 Plant-Herbivore Interactions (3)
Three hours of lecture/discussion per week. Introduction to major plant defensive strategies and counter-adaptation by herbivores. Costs and consequences of herbivory and evaluation of contemporary plant defense models. Direct and indirect linkage of plant-herbivore interactions with higher trophic levels, and effects on population and community dynamics. Plant-herbivore interactions and anthropogenic global change. Fall (Even years).
Prerequisite(s): Introductory courses in ecology and evolution.

EFB 505 Microbial Ecology (2)
Two hours of lecture/discussion per week. An in-depth survey of contemporary topics in microbial ecology including carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycling, microbial degradation of recalcitrant compounds, frost control, and utilization of wood-based feedstocks as carbon sources for bioconversion to bioenergy, biofuels, and biomaterials. Spring.
Prerequisite: EFB 303 or similar microbiology course is recommended.

EFB 512 Introduction to Personal Environmental Interpretation Methods (3)
Two hours of lecture and 2 hours of recitation per week. One required Saturday field trip. Personal interpretation teaches a variety of face-to-face techniques used to connect the public with environmental science by providing an introduction to history of interpretation, popular interpretive and environmental education activities and curriculum, evaluation of programs, and lesson plans. Explores and illustrates the research and philosophy of environmental interpretation. Discuss interpretive research, plan and lead lectures, and mentor/evaluate undergraduates. Credit will not be granted for both EFB 312 and EFB 512. Fall.
Prerequisite(s): graduate standing or permission of instructor.

EFB 513 Adirondack Forest Ecology and Management (2 - 3)
One-week, field-based examination of sustainable forest management in the Adirondacks, framed by concepts and issues associated with plant and wildlife ecology, silviculture, and forest management. Contemporary research on central Adirondack forests is featured based on work at the Huntington Wildlife Forest. Emphasis is on experiential learning via a series of trips to, and laboratories in, the forest. Fall (late summer).
Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 513 and FOR 513.

EFB 516 Ecosystems (3)
Three hours of lecture/discussion per week. Ecosystems emphasize the integration of biological, chemical and physical aspects of the environment applied in an integrative fashion to units of landscape and water. Major topics covered include a survey of ecosystem types, energy flow, nutrient cycles and the relation of ecosystem processes to plant and animal populations. Spring.
Prerequisite: EFB 320.

EFB 518 Systems Ecology (4)
Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory/field experience per week. Survey of history, literature and techniques of systems ecology, including, especially, the teaching of intellectual, basic mathematical and computer skills that allow the student to take an environmental problem of his or her choosing and simulate it on a computer. Fall.
Prerequisite: One course in ecology. It is also recommended that the student have at least some previous or concurrent experience with computers. Weekend field trip required.

EFB 521 Principles of Interpretive Programming (3)
Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. This course offers principles, methods, and marketing for comprehensive interpretive programming. Creative approaches to methods for establishing effective programming featuring natural history themes are emphasized. Spring, alternate years.
Prerequisite: EFB 416/EFB 616 or EFB 417/EFB 617.

EFB 522 Biophysical Economics (3)
Three hours of lecture per week. Approaches economics as a biophysical rather than social science, i.e., the ecology of human-dominated ecosystems. Reviews concepts of value and economics (physiocrat, classical and neoclassical approaches), and examines an alternative model emphasizing analysis of energy and material flows and their control instead. Focus is on the developing tropics. Spring.
Prerequisite: A course in ecology and a course in economics.

EFB 523 Tropical Ecology (3)
One hour of lecture coupled with a period of intensive field study over spring break on a tropical island in the Caribbean. Principles of tropical ecology, resource management and island biogeography are presented. Field trips to a variety of tropical ecosystems including: rain forest, coral reefs, crater lakes and montane rain forest. Comparisons with north temperate ecosystems are made. Additional fees required to cover cost of travel and lodging during field portion of course. Requires the ability to swim. Spring.
Prerequisite: EFB 320.

EFB 525 Limnology Practicum (2)
Three hours of field work or laboratory analysis each week. Two additional field trips on weekends; time outside of class devoted to an independent project. Students will become proficient in standard field and laboratory analyses used in limnology; field trips to diverse local aquatic habitats; development of an independent project. Fall.
Prerequisites: EFB 424, 624 or equivalent must be taken concurrently or previously.

EFB 530 Plant Physiology (3)
Three hours of lecture per week. Internal processes and conditions in higher plants with emphasis on physiological and biochemical concepts. For students majoring in the biological sciences. Spring.
Prerequisites: EFB 325, EFB 326. Note: EFB 531 also required for plant sciences concentration students.

EFB 531 Plant Physiology Laboratory (2)
Two three-hour laboratory sessions per week. An introduction to methods and procedures of physiological research. Spring.
Pre- or co-requisite: EFB 530 or permission of instructor.

EFB 542 Freshwater Wetland Ecosystems (3)
Three hours of lecture per week. An examination of the structure and function of various freshwater wetlands. Ecologic principles that broadly apply to all wetland ecosystems are examined and contrasted with terrestrial systems. The effect of management activities on, and the management potential of, wetlands are also examined. Spring.
Prerequisite: EFB 320.

EFB 551 Forest Entomology (3)
Two hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Diversity, ecology and integrated management of insect pests of forested ecosystems. Additional topics include invasive species, climate change and current research topics. Intended for students in Environmental and Forest Biology and Forest Resources Management. Fall, even years.
Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 351 and EFB 55l.

EFB 552 Entomology (3)
Two hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Basic insect diversity, ecology and pest management with an emphasis on common insect pests of the northeastern United States. Additional topics include invasive species, climate change and current research topics. Intended for students in Environmental Biology and Forest Health. Fall, odd years.
Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 352 and EFB 552.

EFB 554 Aquatic Entomology (3)
Two hours of lecture, three hours of laboratory/field work per week and a weekend field trip. An introduction to the identification, life histories and ecology of aquatic insects, with emphasis on genera found in the Northeastern United States. Includes a consideration of the functional role of insects in aquatic systems, and current avenues of research. Intended for seniors and graduate students pursuing interests in entomology, fisheries and wildlife, forestry, limnology and general ecology. Fall.
Prerequisite: One course in entomology or permission of instructor.

EFB 560 Electronic Technology in Interpretation & Environmental Education (3)
Three hours of lecture per week. Explores the research and two disciplines of electronic technologies, those used in environmental science fields and those used in interpretive fields. Demonstrates techniques used to engage the public with the cultural and natural resources. Even years. Spring.

EFB 566 Systematic Entomology (3)
Two hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Lectures introduce the identification and classification of the important orders and families of insects, along with the concepts and practice of sys-tematics. In laboratories students become familiar with pertinent taxonomic literature and keys, based in part on a required collection. Fall.
Prerequisite: EFB 351 or EFB 352.

EFB 570 Insect Physiology (3)
Two hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Study of the life processes in insects; introduction to modern physiological instrumentation and laboratory methods. Spring.
Prerequisite: EFB 325.

EFB 600 Toxic Health Hazards (4)
Three hours of lecture and one hour discussion/seminar per week. Introduction to contemporary concepts of toxicology and to scientific basis for regulations and personal decisions about toxic health hazards. For students in natural or social sciences of environmental relevance. Topics include xenobiotic load, co-evolution of plant/animal defenses, chemical interactions, animal tests and risk assessment. Additional reading assignments and discussions. Fall.
Prerequisites: General biology and general chemistry. Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 400 and EFB 600.

EFB 601 Molecular Biology Techniques (4)
Two hours lecture and six hours laboratory per week. Theories behind techniques in molecular biology are introduced in lecture. Laboratory includes the extraction and quantification of genomic and plasmid DNA, agarose gel electrophoresis, restriction digestion, ligation, bacterial transformation, DNA sequencing and PCR. Additional topics in molecular biology are presented by the students. Fall.
Prerequisites: EFB 307, EFB 308, EFB 325 or equivalents. Note: Credit will not be granted for both BTC 401 and EFB 601.

EFB 605 Indigenous Issues and the Environment (3)
Three hours of lecture and discussion per week. Introduction to perspectives of indigenous people on environmental and natural resources management issues, including tribal forestry, fisheries, biocultural restoration, conservation strategies, climate change and treaty rights. Integrates scientific and indigenous worldviews and knowledge systems. Spring.
Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 305 and EFB 605.

EFB 610 Ecological Biogeochemistry (3)
Three hours of lecture and discussion per week. Investigation of the principles of biogeochemistry in ecosystems. The transformations and fluxes of elements in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems including global cycles are emphasized. Fall.
Prerequisites: Courses in general ecology and introductory chemistry.

EFB 611 Topics in Environmental Toxicology (3)
Three hours of lecture, discussion or seminar per week. In-depth exploration of selected contemporary topics of environmental toxicology in areas such as toxic hazards of societal importance, pollutant monitoring and remediation, fate and ecological impacts of environmental pollutants, biological basis of toxic hazards, and ecological and human risk assessment and regulations. A major term paper and oral presentation required. Spring.
Prerequisite: EFB 400, EFB 600 or an introductory course in toxicology.

EFB 612 Introduction to Chemical Ecology (3)
Three hours of lecture with discussion per week. Centers on chemical signals among organisms from microbes to man as they affect ecology, physiology and behavior; and as they can be utilized for agriculture, pest management and animal husbandry. Spring.
Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 612 and EFB 412/ FCH 440.

EFB 617 Non-Personal Environmental Interpretive Methods (3)
Three hours of lecture per week. Applications of environmental interpretation theory and methods applied to nature center programming, science education, and various fields of resource management emphasizing procedures for creating non-personal interpretive media (e.g., brochures, wayside exhibts, etc.). Focus on service-learning through involvement with an outside interpretive agency.Submit an interpretive article for publication, read and hold online discussions of research on non-personal interpretation, and evaluate local interpretive media. Spring.
Prerequisites: EFB 512, or permission of the instructor Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 417 and EFB 617.

EFB 618 Interpretation of Field Biology (5)
This five-week residential course offers introductions to Adirondack flora and fauna in a regional context as subjects for various interpretive programs and products such as nature walks and trailside presentations, and slide presentations. The course provides opportunities to select and test the application of professional interpretive techniques to activities promoting natural history and science education. Summer.
Prerequisite: EFB 320 or permission of instructor. Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 418 and EFB 618.

EFB 622 Applications of Interpretation to Science Education (3)
Weeklong residency course with an external project. This course offers practical research strategies for science educators working with their students in local environments. The course builds on forest ecology and wildlife themes as vehicles to teach the process of science. Included within the field-oriented introductions to Adirondack birds, mammals and flora, are ideas to enhance most science curricula. Applications of nature interpretation are used to energize traditional strategies by using nature trails and walks, and trail leaflets, brochures, presentations, and exhibits. Participants must implement, test and document semester-length projects with their students. Summer.

EFB 623 Marine Ecology (5)
Three hours of lecture per week, two hours of laboratory/recitation per week, one hour of graduate discussion per week and one weekend field trip. Introduction to marine organisms and systems, using the principles of population, community and ecosystem ecology. Hands-on demonstrations, discussions, presentations, lectures, and field trip allow study of major marine habitats (e.g., intertidal, pelagic, coral reefs, deep sea), and the increasing human impact on marine environments. Small fee charged for mandatory weekend field trip. Synthetic review paper and short presentation to the EFB 423 class are required. Spring, even years.
Prerequisites: One year general biology and general ecology or equivalents. Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 423 and EFB 623.

EFB 624 Limnology: Study of Inland Waters (3)
Three hours of lecture per week, with additional hands-on activities during the semester. An introduction to the geology, physics, chemistry and biology of inland waters (lotic and lentic); effects of natural and anthropogenic perturbations are explored. Students develop a case study or exercise on a limnological issue. Fall.
Prerequisites: Introductory courses in physics, chemistry, and ecology, or permission of instructor. Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 424 and EFB 624.

EFB 625 Plant Biotechnology (3)
Two hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Transgenic plants are currently being produced to improve agriculture, pharmaceuticals, and remediate environmental problems. Students are taught the principles of gene structure and regulation, gene cloning, transformation of plant species, and current applications. Format includes lectures, discussions, student presentations, literature review, and a detailed laboratory project. Spring.
Prerequisites: EFB 307 and EFB 325 or equivalents. Note: Credit will not be granted for both BTC 425 and EFB 625.

EFB 626 Plant Tissue Culture Methods (3)
Two hours of lecture and discussion and three hours of laboratory per week. Introduction to plant tissue culture for biotechnology research and as a propagation method. Emphasis will be on learning laboratory instrumentation and techniques for establishing cell cultures, producing transgenic cell lines, and regenerating whole plants. In addition to the scheduled lab exercises, an independent micropropagation or transformation project will be required. Fall.
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. Note: Credit will not be granted for BTC 426 and FOR/EFB 626.

EFB 627 Plant Anatomy and Development (3)
Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory instruction per week. This course offers a dynamic approach to the study of plant structure by understanding how cells, tissues and organs are formed using concepts and tools from genetics and molecular biology. Laboratory involves hands-on activities using current techniques. Students will give oral presentation on a topic relevant to the course. Fall.
Prerequisite: one year introductory biology. Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 427 and EFB 627.

EFB 628 Mycorrhizal Ecology (3)
Two hours of combined lecture/discussion and three hours of laboratory per week. Introduction to mycorrhizal symbioses, their role in plant nutrient uptake and function in plant community dynamics. Emphasis is on important historical and current literature, and on learning methodological approaches used in mycorrhizal research. Students will present and lead discussions on papers from the primary literature. An independent project is required. Fall, even years.
Prerequisites: General ecology or plant ecology, genetics. Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 428 and EFB 628.

EFB 635 Flowering Plants: Diversity, Evolution, and Systematics (3)
Two hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Diversity, evolution, and systematics of flowering plants with emphasis on flower structures and reproductive strategies. Flowering plant identification skills are built from examination of a broad diversity of species from major globally-distributed families with particular focus on flora of the Northeastern U.S. Students prepare professional presentations and lead discussion on current research issues in flowering plant diversity, evolution, and systematics. [Fall]
Prerequisite(s): General Biology I and II or permission of instructor.

EFB 640 Mycology (3)
Two hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Fundamentals of the morphology, taxonomy, life histories, ecology and symbiotic relationships of fungi. Fall.
Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 440 and EFB 640.

EFB 643 Plant Virology (3)
Two hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. History of plant virology, identification and characterization of plant viruses, including transmission mechanisms, vector relationships, purification and serology. Laboratory will present techniques for the identification and characterization of plant viruses. Spring, even years.
Prerequisite: EFB 303 or permission of instructor. Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 443 and EFB 643.

EFB 644 Biogeography (4)
Three hours of lecture per week. Earth history (plate tectonics, etc.), topography and geographic variation in environmental conditions influence species and communities. Major geographic patterns in biological diversity and strategies for conserving native species are presented. Students design and conduct independent biogeographic study utilizing information available in the literature. Fall, even years.
Prerequisite: General ecology or permission of instructor. Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 444 and EFB 644.

EFB 645 Plant Ecology and Global Change (3)
Three hours of lecture and discussion per week. Impacts of global changes in climate, biodiversity, land-use, and biogeochemical cycles on the structure and function of terrestrial plant communities and ecosystems. Global change impacts are examined across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, from ecophysiological processes occurring at the scale of a leaf, to global patterns of primary productivity and biodiversity. Spring.
Prerequisite: EFB 320 General Ecology or equivalent. Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 445 and EFB 645.

EFB 646 Ecology of Mosses (3)
Two hours of lecture per week and one three-hour laboratory or field trip. A study of taxonomic diversity, ecological adaptations and the roles of bryophytes in ecosystems. Spring.
Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 446 and EFB 646.

EFB 650 Landscape Ecology (3)
Two hours of lecture/discussion and three hours of laboratory experience per week. Landscape Ecology focuses on spatial patterning Ė its development and relevance to ecological processes. Course introduces the foundations, issues, and analytical tools in Landscape Ecology through discussion of literature, GIS exercises, and an independent research project. Fall (even years).
Prerequisites: Introductory course in Geographic Information Systems, or equivalent.

EFB 653 Parasitology (3)
Two hours of lecture/discussion per week, three hours laboratory per week. Diversity, ecology, and impact of parasites of ecological, medical, and veterinary importance. Emphasis on identification, life history, control, host-parasite interactions and evolution, population patterns, and parasite communities. Students write a review paper and present on a parasitic disease. Fall.
Prerequisite(s): One year of Introductory Biology, Ecology. Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 453 and EFB 653.

EFB 662 Animal Physiology: Environmental and Ecological (3)
Three hours of lecture, discussion and exercises per week, and an independent project. An introduction to the physiology of adaptation to the physical and biotic environments, including animal energetics, biology of body size, and physiological constraints on animal life history. Fall and Spring.
Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 462 and EFB 662.

EFB 681 Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration and Enhancement (2)
One and three-quarter hours of lecture and discussion per week and three field experiences. Guiding principles for ecological restoration of freshwater aquatic ecosystems focusing on effects of nutrient loading, sedimentation, flow alteration, and habitat loss. Factors leading to loss of aquatic resources and effectiveness of techniques to restore habitat and fauna are analyzed. Student presentation of a relevant topic and field excursions to perturbed areas and recent restoration projects are required. Fall, odd years.
Prerequisites: none. Directed toward graduate students in areas involving aquatic sciences and management.

EFB 684 Mammalian Winter Ecology (3)
Ten-day field course conducted during one weekend in February and during March break in the Adirondack Mountains of New York. The course explores ecological adaptations of mammals for surviving the winter in northern latitudes. Students are in the field daily. There is a course fee. Spring.

EFB 685 Ecology of Mammals of the Adirondack Mountains (2)
One week, field-based course with 15 hours of lecture and 45 hours of field/laboratory work. Focus on Adirondack mammals, their life histories, adaptations and habitat requirements. Emphasis on experiential learning where participants live trap, mark, and release small mammals, mist net bats, and employ radio telemetry techniques to understand the habits of mammals. Course is designed for college teachers and graduate students with teaching responsibilities. Fall (late summer).

EFB 687 Fisheries Science and Management (3)
Three hours of lecture per week. Introduction to the biology, ecology, quantitative assessments, conservation, and management of fish species targeted in fisheries. Includes models and empirical studies of population dynamics, life history theory, population growth, mortality, production, exploitation, and management. Critical synthesis project required. Fall.
Prerequisites: Calculus and either Limnology or Ichthyology or permission of instructor. Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 487 and EFB 687.

EFB 692 Ecology and Management of Waterfowl (3)
Three hours of lecture per week. A detailed examination of waterfowl ecology and management. The course is structured around the annual cycle, focusing on strategies of survival and reproduction; management aspects are treated throughout the course. Fall and Spring.
Prerequisite: EFB 483.

EFB 693 Wildlife Habitats and Populations (4)
Three hours of lecture/discussion and one three-hour laboratory per week; one Saturday field trip required. Application of ecological concepts including succession and population biology to wildlife management planning and program assessment. Students are exposed to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service habitat evaluation procedures and fundamentals of population modeling. Fall.
Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 493 and EFB 693.

EFB 796 Topics in Environmental and Forest Biology (1 - 3)
Special instruction, conference, advanced study, and research in selected subject areas. A written report required. Check Schedule of Courses for details. Fall and Spring.

EFB 797 Seminar in Environmental and Forest Biology (1)
Seminar discussions of subjects of interest and importance in environmental and forest biology. Seminar offerings are available in most subdisciplinary areas. Check Schedule of Courses for details. Fall and Spring.

EFB 798 Research Problems in Environmental and Forest Biology (1 - 12)
Individual advanced study of selected special problems in environmental and forest biology. Offered by arrangement with individual faculty. A written report required. Fall and Spring.

EFB 898 Professional Experience (1 - 12)
Professional experience which applies, enriches and/or complements formal coursework. Graded on an "S/U" basis. Fall, Spring and Summer.

EFB 899 Masterís Thesis or Project Research (1 - 12)
Investigation leading to the completion of a research-oriented thesis or to an application-oriented project. Graded on an "S/U" basis. Fall, Spring and Summer.

EFB 999 Doctoral Thesis Research (1 - 12)
Investigation leading to the completion of the doctoral thesis. Graded on an "S/U" basis. Fall, Spring and Summer.


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