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Course Numbering System

100-499: Undergraduate courses for which no graduate credit may be given.

500-599: Graduate courses designed expressly for areas of specialization in post-baccalaureate programs. Qualified undergraduate students may enroll by permission of the instructor.

600-699: Graduate courses designed expressly for advanced levels of specialization. Undergraduate students with a cumulative grade point average of 3.000 or better may enroll in these courses with an approved petition.

700-999: Advanced graduate level courses for which no undergraduate students may register. Shared resources courses, designated as 400/500 or 400/600, are designed when the topic coverage of both courses is the same. Separate course syllabuses are developed expressly differentiating the requirements and evaluative criteria between the undergraduate course and the graduate course. No type of cross-listing may be offered unless approved by the ESF faculty.

FNRM Courses

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FOR 106 Introduction to Green Entrepreneurship (3)
One-week short-course. An introduction to the challenges and goals of creating a start-up venture in environmental science or technology. Recognize marketplace trends and creating commercial opportunities. Analyze feasibility and potential to create a sustainable venture. Topics include critical success factors and key start-up issues unique to science and technology. Summer.
Prerequisite(s): Completed 11th grade.

FOR 132 Orientation Seminar: F&NRM (1)
Thirteen hours of lecture and six hours of field time. An introduction to forest and natural resource management and related career paths. Indoor and outdoor lectures expand student awareness of ESF’s educational opportunities, properties, and faculty in FNRM. Fall.

FOR 201 Introduction to Watershed Hydrology (2)
One hour of online lecture per week. Introductory survey of the distribution of water throughout the atmosphere, biosphere, and the physical earth. Topics include major storages and flows of water including precipitation, evaporation, runoff, urban stormwater, and soil storage, as well as water budgets and watershed management. Spring, fall, summer.

FOR 202 Introduction to Sociology (3)
Three hours of lecture per week. General introductory principles and methods of sociology including group dynamics and development, different structural arrangement of social groups, community development and adjustment processes, relationships with the natural environment. Fall and Spring.

FOR 203 Western Civilization and the Environment (3)
Three hours of lecture per week. General survey of the history of Western civilization from ancient societies through the seventeenth century, with attention to environmental and natural resource issues and perspectives. Analysis of the rise of the West. Historic and contemporary influences of the Western tradition. Fall and Spring.

FOR 204 Natural Resources in American History (3)
Three hours of lecture/discussion per week. Introductory survey of American history from colonization through the twentieth century, with attention to natural resources use, allocation, and management. Environmental history and introduction to historiography. Fall and Spring.

FOR 205 Principles of Accounting (3)
Three hours of lecture per week. Principles and methods used in financial and managerial accounting. Includes interpretation and effective use of financial statements through study of the accounting model, the measurement processes, data classification and terminology. Fall and Spring.

FOR 207 Introduction to Economics (3)
Three hours of lecture per week. Coverage of basic theory in microeconomics and macroeconomics. Application of theory and economic models to problems at the firm and national policy levels. Exploration of topics in money and banking, globalization and economic development. Fall and Spring.

FOR 208 Introduction to Sustainable Energy Resources (2)
Two hour of seminar/lecture/discussion per week concerning sustainable energy resources. Topics include: energy use and sources, sustainable use of energy resources, energy units and conversions, renewable energy, and financial analysis of energy projects. Fall.

FOR 232 Natural Resources Ecology (3)
Three hours of lecture/discussion per week for the first 12 weeks. Then 1.5 hours of lecture/discussion per week plus a 4.25-hour field trip for the last four weeks. The course provides an introduction to basic principles of ecology as they relate to terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems, and to natural resources. General topics for study include consideration of the physical environment, primary net production and energy flow through trophic levels, genetics and adaptation, ecosystem structure and function, competition and community dynamics, characteristics of freshwater ecosystems, and biogeochemical cycling and human impacts from local to global levels. Spring.
Prerequisites: EFB 101/EFB 102 General Biology I w/lab, or equivalent (organismal biology).

FOR 296 Special Topics in Resource Management/Forestry (1 - 3)
Experimental, interdisciplinary or special coursework at the freshman or sophomore levels. Subject matter and course format vary from semester to semester. Fall or Spring.

FOR 304 Adirondack Field Studies (4)
Four-week field course with five hours of lecture and 30 hours of field laboratory per week. Introduction to silvics, forest ecology and natural and cultural history as a basis for understanding forest vegetation and other natural resources. Principles and methods for the measurement of spatial and vegetative attributes of forested landscapes. Course stresses development of field ability in common plant identification, overland navigation and timber, tree, forest and habitat measurements, and synthesis of field data. Summer.

FOR 312 Sociology of Natural Resources (3)
Three hours of lecture per week. The concepts and principles of sociology as applied to natural resource questions. Concepts of community, forest-dependent communities, shared identity, and social structures of resource-based groups. The forest as an integrated social and biological community. Spring.

FOR 321 Forest Ecology and Silviculture (3)
Two hours of classroom lecture with weekly three-hour trips and labs to forests across Central New York. Survey of forest tree and stand ecology (silvics) and silviculture concepts, applications and implications for treatment of forest stands for various values. Experiential learning emphasized through a strong field component of assessing vegetation, site quality and land use history variables, and treatment alternatives to create different forest conditions. For students outside forest resources management curriculum; not open to students taking FOR 332 and FOR 334. Fall.
Prerequisite: Botany or general biology. Note: Credit will not be granted for both FOR 321 and FOR 521.

FOR 322 Natural Resources Measurements and Sampling (3)
Two hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory. Principles and methods used in the measurement and quantitative analysis of natural resources, including vegetation, water, soils, recreation and wildlife. The application of sampling designs for estimating populations and inventory planning, and statistical analysis for quantifying sampling error. Fall.
Prerequisite(s): FOR 304 or equivalent; APM 391 or equivalent

FOR 323 Forest Biometrics (3)
Three hours lecture per week. Statistical techniques for analyzing problems in forest resource management including hypothesis testing, analysis of variance, simple and multiple linear regressions, and weighted least squares regression. Spring.
Prerequisite: APM 391 or equivalent.

FOR 330 Studies in Silviculture (3)
Three hours of lecture per week, with reading assignments, exams, and projects. Students gain an appreciation of silviculture and its use for influencing the character, composition, and development of forest stands, and the conceptual framework for those practices. Projects provide opportunities to explore techniques for analyzing forest stands and developing prescriptions. Fall

FOR 332 Forest Ecology (4)
Three hours of lecture/discussion and three hours of laboratory per week. Structure, function and dynamics of forest ecosystems at multiple scales, from trees to landscapes, including human interactions. Topics include ecophysiology, disturbance, succession, carbon and nutrient cycling, forest management, invasive species and climate change. Field data collection and analysis. Fall.
Prerequisite(s): FOR 232, or EFB 101 and 102, or equivalent by permission of instructor.

FOR 333 Natural Resources Managerial Economics (3)
Three hours of lecture per week and a mandatory one-day or two-day overnight field trip. Every natural resources manager must answer the question of how to use economic information to make better business and management decisions daily. Solutions require identifying alternative means of achieving given objective(s), then selecting the alternative that accomplishes this in the most resource efficient manner. Spring.
Required for Forest Resources Management, Natural Resources Management, and Sustainable Energy Management degree programs. This is a shared resource course with FOR533. Note: Credit will not be granted for both FOR333 and FOR533. Prerequisite: FOR 207 Introduction to Economics (or equivalent) and FOR 205 Principles of Accounting (pre- or co-requisite; or equivalent); or permission of instructor

FOR 334 Silviculture (4)
Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week. The practice of silviculture in managing stands to serve various landowner interests. Field trips and exercises provide opportunities to see examples of silvicultural methods under different management scenarios, and to learn and practice techniques for analyzing forest stands and developing prescriptions for their treatment. Fall.
Note: Credit will not be granted for both FOR 334 and FOR 534.

FOR 338 Meteorology (3)
Three hours of lecture/discussion per week. This is a shared resource course with FOR 538. An introduction to the atmospheric physical processes important to understanding weather and weather forecasting at the surface of the earth and macro-, synoptic-, meso-, and micro-climates. The emphasis is on synoptic and microscale phenomena. Students will learn how to access weather data on the Internet and use the data to forecast weather. At the microscale, emphasis is on describing conditions and projecting change. Fall.
Note: Credit will not be granted for both FOR 338 and FOR 538.

FOR 340 Watershed Hydrology (3)
Three hours of lecture per week. Principles of physical hydrology, including the basic principles of watershed hydrology, from the relationship between watershed hydrology and the global water cycle, to the specifics of groundwater flow, stream flow generation, and water quality management at the watershed scale. Spring.
Prerequisites: FOR345 - Introduction to Soils Note: Credit will not be granted for both FOR 340 and FOR 540.

FOR 345 Introduction to Soils (3)
Two hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week. Introduction to the fundamentals of soil science in the context of soil as an ecosystem component. Fall.
Prerequisite or Co-requisite: 1 semester of Introductory Chemistry. Note: Credit will not be granted for both FOR 345 and FOR 545.

FOR 360 Principles of Management (3)
Three hours of lecture per week. This course focuses on the basic theories, concepts, principles and functions of modern management and administration, with an emphasis on the four functions of management: leading, planning, organizing, controlling. The four functions of management are applied to the public and private sectors, as well as for profit and not-for-profit organizations. Environmental management systems, corporate ethics and social responsibility and systematic problem solving are among the principal topics emphasized. Fall.
Note: Credit will not be granted for both FOR 360 and FOR 560.

FOR 370 Forest Management Decision Making and Planning (3)
Two hours of lecture/discussion and three hours of laboratory per week. Introduction to the components of forest management decision making and planning. The topics include forest regulation, growth and yield, and harvest scheduling given that a landowner’s goals may include more than just commercial timber production. Spring.
Prerequisites: FOR 322 and FOR 334. Note: Credit will not be granted for both FOR 370 and FOR 570.

FOR 372 Fundamentals of Outdoor Recreation (3)
Three hours of lecture/discussion per week. Introduction to the programs and practices of federal, state and local agencies and private organizations involved in planning, administration and management of outdoor recreation areas. Emphasis is placed on common resource and social problems faced by area managers, and how they integrate solutions into their plans. Spring.

FOR 373 Forest Operations (3)
Two hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week. Overview of forest roads and timber harvesting; planning, construction, and maintenance of forest roads; economic and environmental characteristics of harvesting systems; safety and health; wood procurement systems; and the role of forest operations in the broader context of forest management. Fall.
Prerequisite: FOR 322 or FOR 334 or permission of instructor.

FOR 402 Professional Forestry Mentoring Program (1)
One-hour session per week supplemented by a one-day internship with a professional forester. Sessions will focus on contemporary issues in forestry including a historical perspective of the forestry profession, what it means to be a forester today, the role of certification and licensing, and professional ethics. It will serve to increase the professionalism of the forestry students. Fall.
Prerequisites: Junior status or permission of instructor.

FOR 403 Humans and the Environment: New Zealand (4)
Three and one-half week study-abroad program examines the natural and cultural history and resource management of New Zealand's South Island. Through class lecture/discussion and field excursions, students obtain an understanding of integrated resource management and sustainability in protected areas. Spring.

FOR 433 Silviculture Workshop (3)
Three hours of classroom or six hours field instruction, and three hours independent study per week. Advanced study of silviculture in managing stands to serve a variety of landowner objectives. Enhanced problem-solving skills related to stand analysis and prescription making. Field exercises provide practical experience in implementing silvicultural prescriptions. Spring.
Prerequisite: One prior course in silviculture.

FOR 442 Watershed Ecology and Management (3)
Three hours of lecture and discussion per week. Introduction to watershed ecology and stream ecosystems. Interactions and linkages among upland, riparian and stream processes. Management and restoration associated with multiple uses of forest and rangelands. Explore influences of spatial and temporal scale, watershed and network position, disturbance regimes, and global change. Fall.
Note: Credit will not be granted for both FOR 442 and FOR 642.

FOR 454 Renewable Energy Finance and Analysis (3)
Three hours of lecture/discussion per week concerning renewable energy finance and analysis. Topics include: the adoption and financing of renewable energy project within the context of overall economics of energy markets, financial analysis of renewable energy projects, the role of tax and subsidies in promoting the adoption of renewable sources of energy. Spring.
Prerequisite(s): FOR205 Principles of Accounting (or equivalent) and FOR333 Natural Resources Managerial Economics (or equivalent) or permission of the instructor

FOR 458 Advanced GIS (3)
Five hours of class meeting per week. Lecture, demonstration, discussion, and lab exercises. Apply advanced geoprocessing techniques in resource analysis and modeling. Students complete a capstone project. Spring.
Prerequisite(s): ESF300 or equivalent. This is a shared resource course and credit will not be granted for both FOR 458 and FOR 658

FOR 465 Natural Resources Policy (3)
Three hours of lecture/discussion per week. Examination of US and NYS government roles in natural resource policy, and how government policies influence the management of public and private lands. Analysis of institutions, participants, and drivers of public lands, forest, water, wetlands, wildlife, fisheries, and fire policies. Fall.

FOR 475 Human Behavior and Recreation Visitor Management (3)
Three hours of lecture per week and a one-day field trip. Applies sociological and psychological concepts to: 1) individual preferences for recreation activities and settings, 2) description of recreation visitor behavior, 3) sources of management problems, 4) developing direct and indirect visitor management practices, and 5) recreation planning decisions necessary to manage recreation settings and experiences. Students have the opportunity to apply concepts to personal recreation experiences. Spring.
Prerequisite: FOR 372 or equivalent. Note: Credit will not be granted for both FOR 475 and FOR 675.

FOR 476 Ecotourism and Nature Tourism (3)
Three hours of instruction per week. Overview of ecotourism and nature tourism programs and efforts around the world. Community, business, and organizational structures necessary for managing ecotourism and nature tourism programs are discussed, as are related environmental, social, and economic impacts. One-day field trip. Fall.
Prerequisite: FOR 372. Note: Credit will not be granted for both FOR 476 and FOR 676.

FOR 478 Wilderness and Wildlands Management (3)
Three hours of lecture per week. One, two-day, overnight field trip. Review of the state and federal legislation and agency policies that frame the planning and management of public lands designated as wilderness or wildlands. Emphasizes stewardship and management for protection of natural resources and human values. Concepts include carrying capacity, preservation of ecological conditions and processes, visitor management, dispersed recreation management, human values and benefits, and planning frameworks. Fall.
Prerequisite: FOR 372 or equivalent. Note: Credit will not be granted for both FOR 478 and FOR 678.

FOR 480 Urban Forestry (3)
Three hours of lecture per week. Evaluation and management of urban greenspace resources, with emphasis on urban trees, in the context of other values and management processes in urban areas. Class practice in evaluating urban greenspace and tree resources. Spring.
Prerequisite: Junior or senior status in any Forest and Natural Resources Management programs or permission of instructor for juniors and seniors in other programs. Note: Credit will not be granted for both FOR 480 and FOR 680.

FOR 481 Introduction to Arboriculture (3)
Two hours of lecture and one three-hour laboratory per week. Overview of the practice of arboriculture. Emphasis will be on site evaluation for species selection, planting, pruning, fertilization and removal of trees in an urban environment. Spring.
Prerequisite: Botany or Ecology.

FOR 485 Business and Managerial Law (3)
Three hours lecture/discussion per week. An introduction to the law governing business and management. Examination of sources of law, constitutional foundations, ethics, court systems and trials, contracts, agency, consumer law, security interests, bankruptcy, entrepreneurship law, corporations, torts, criminal law, personal property, real property, and wills and estates. Spring.

FOR 487 Environmental Law and Policy (3)
Three hours of lecture/discussion per week. Introduction to the approaches used in US environmental law. Analysis of common law and statutory designs and strategies used to address environmental problems. Examination of common law environmental remedies, Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Endangered Species Act, hazardous waste, and other environmental laws. Fall.
Prerequisite: Junior or Senior standing. Note: Credit will not be granted for both FOR 487 and FOR 687.

FOR 489 Natural Resources Law and Policy (3)
Three hours of lecture/discussion per week. An introduction to the law governing the management of natural resources. Examination of the history and constitutional basis of natural resources law, wildlife and biodiversity law, protected lands law, water law, marine fisheries law, rangelands law, minerals law, and forest law. Spring.
Prerequisites: Junior or senior standing. Note: Credit will not be granted for both FOR 489 and FOR 689.

FOR 490 Integrated Resources Management (3)
One hour of lecture, three hours of laboratory, and three hours of supervised work per week. This capstone course emphasizes the assimilation, integration, and interpretation of the biophysical and socioeconomic sciences. It provides students with the opportunity to integrate skills and knowledge accumulated from professional and supporting coursework. A written comprehensive management plan, also presented orally in the field and classroom, provides the central vehicle by which students demonstrate their abilities as future natural resource managers. Spring.
Prerequisite: Senior status in Forest and Natural Resources Management.

FOR 495 Undergraduate Teaching Assistance (1 - 3)
Undergraduate students gain experience as teaching assistants. They assist the instructor with the teaching and learning experience, assist students with learning course concepts, and mentor students on how to succeed in an undergraduate course. Responsibilities vary by section and instructor. Fall and Spring.
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. Prior completion of course to be assisted with grade of B or better.

FOR 496 Special Topics in Resource Management/Forestry (1 - 3)
Experimental and developmental courses in new areas of resource management/forestry or areas not covered in regularly scheduled courses. Topics may include but are not limited to the biological, physical, and social dimensions and the many and varied resources of forest lands and forestry. Specific detailed course descriptions for each course taught under the FOR 496 designation are available for student perusal. Fall, Spring and Summer.

FOR 498 Independent Study in Forest Resources Management (1 - 6)
Independent research or study in resource management/forestry for selected undergraduate students. Selection of subject area, nature of the research or study, and number of credit hours determined by student in conference with appropriate faculty member; initiative in taking FOR 498 rests with the student. Final written report is required for record. Fall, Spring and Summer.
Prerequisite: Cumulative GPA of at least 2.50 and approval of the adviser and instructor.

FOR 499 Internship in Forest and Natural Resources Management (1 - 12)
Full- or part-time engagement as volunteer or employee working for off-campus resource management/forestry/renewable energy organization under guidance of external supervisor. Record of activities and final written report is required for record. Junior or senior status, cumulative GPA of at least 2.5, and written approval of a study plan by faculty advisor and field supervisor must be submitted prior to its commencement. Fall, Spring and Summer.
Prerequisite: Junior or Senior status. Must have a cumulative GPA of at least 2.5.

FOR 501 Introduction to Environmental Resources Management (2)
Two-week, field-based examination of forest, water, wildlife, recreation, and mineral resources and their management in New York State and surrounding states, framed by public administration, political science, economic, human dimension, and biophysical concepts. Emphasis is on experiential learning via a series of field trips. Fall (mid-August).
Prerequisite(s): Enrollment in the ERM MPS degree program.

FOR 513 Adirondack Forest Ecology and Management (2 - 3)
One-week, field-based examination of sustainable forest management in the Adirondacks, framed by concepts and issues associated with plant and wildlife ecology, silviculture, and forest management. Contemporary research on central Adirondack forests is featured based on work at the Huntington Wildlife Forest. Emphasis is on experiential learning via a series of trips to, and laboratories in, the forest. Fall (late summer).
Note: Credit will not be granted for both EFB 513 and FOR 513.

FOR 519 Green Entrepreneurship (3)
Three hours of lecture/discussion per week. Explore challenges and goals of creating a start-up venture in environmental science or technology. Recognize trends in the marketplace, and where commercial opportunities can be created. Analyze feasibility and potential to create a sustainable venture. Other topic areas include critical success factors and key start-up issues unique to environmental science and technology firms. Spring.
Prerequisite(s): FOR 207 Introduction to Economics or equivalent; or permission of instructor.

FOR 521 Forest Ecology and Silviculture (3)
Two hours of classroom lecture with weekly three-hour trips and labs to forests across Central New York. Study of the conceptual underpinnings and application of forest ecology via explorations of the environmental complex and silvicultural systems. Experiential learning is emphasized through a strong field component of assessing vegetation, site and land use history variables, and treatment alternatives to create different forest conditions. Provides a study of trees as individuals and communities, and how we can manipulate them both using planned methods and techniques to affect sustained production of a wide variety of forest ecosystem benefits, services, and values. Fall.
Prerequisite(s): Botany or general biology. Note: Credit will not be granted for both FOR 321 and FOR 521. Note: Not open to students taking FOR 534.

FOR 522 Forest Mensuration (3)
Two hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Principles and methods used in the measurement of standing trees, forest stands, forest products and growth. The application of sampling designs and analysis for forest valuation and inventory planning. Graduate students will be required to complete two additional term projects in addition to those required of undergraduate students. Fall.
Prerequisites: FOR 304 or equivalent. Co-requisites: APM 391 or equivalent. Note: Credit will not be granted for both FOR 322 and FOR 522.

FOR 523 Tropical Ecology (3)
Preparatory lectures(1.5 hr/wk) coupled with intensive spring break field study on a tropical island in the Caribbean. Principles of tropical ecology, resource management, and island biogeography are presented. Field trips to a variety of tropical ecosystems including rain forest, coral reefs, crater lakes, montane rain forest with comparison to north temperate ecosystems. Additional fee covers costs of travel, lodging. Spring. Prerequisite(s): General Ecology
Prerequisite: General Ecology.

FOR 524 Forest Biometrics (3)
Three hours of lecture per week. Statistical methods and techniques including hypothesis testing, analysis of variance, simple and multiple linear regressions used for analyzing forest resource management problems and developing forest growth and yield models. Graduate students will be required to write a research paper in addition to those required of undergraduate students. Spring.
Prerequisite: APM 391 or equivalent. Note: Credit will not be granted for both FOR 323 and FOR 524.

FOR 530 Studies in Silviculture (3)
Three hours of lecture per week, with reading assignments, exams, and projects. Students gain an appreciation of silviculture and its use for influencing the character, composition, and development of forest stands, and the conceptual framework for those practices. Projects provide opportunities to explore techniques for analyzing forest stands and developing prescriptions. Fall

FOR 532 Forest Ecology (4)
Four hours of lecture/discussion and three hours of laboratory per week. Structure, function and dynamics of forest ecosystems at multiple scales, from trees to landscapes, including human interactions. Topics include ecophysiology, disturbance, succession, carbon and nutrient cycling, forest management, invasive species and climate change. Field data collection and analysis. Fall.
Prerequisite(s): Undergraduate coursework in biology/ecology; or by permission of instructor

FOR 533 Natural Resources Managerial Economics (3)
Three hours of lecture per week and a mandatory one-day or two-day overnight field trip. Every natural resources manager must answer the question of how to use economic information to make better business and management decisions daily. Solutions require systematically analyzing economic tools and models to identify alternative means of achieving given objective(s), then selecting the alternative that accomplishes this in the most resource efficient manner. Spring.
Required in the Master of Forestry degree program. This is a shared resource course with FOR333. Note: Credit will not be granted for both FOR333 and FOR533. Prerequisite(s): Microeconomics (e.g., FOR207 Introduction to Economics or equivalent); Calculus (e.g., APM105 Survey of Calculus and Its Applications I or equivalent); Principles of Accounting (pre- or co-requisite; e.g., FOR205 Principles of Accounting or equivalent); or permission of instructor

FOR 534 Silvicultural Practice (4)
Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. The practice of silviculture in managing stands to serve various landowner interests, and explore the conceptual framework for those practices. Field trips and exercises provide opportunities to see examples of silvicultural methods under different management scenarios and to learn and practice techniques for analyzing forest stands and developing prescriptions for their treatment. Laboratory projects include reports that explore the conceptual and technical rationale for silvicultural decisions. Fall.
Note: Credit will not be granted for both FOR 334 and FOR 534.

FOR 535 Advanced Forest Soils (3)
Three hours of lecture/discussion per week concerning the current state-of-the-art in forest soils. Effect of intensive forest management on soil, soil-site-species relationships, forest fertilization tree nutrition. Application of forest soils information to silviculture. Spring.
Prerequisite: FOR 332 or beginning courses in soils and silviculture.

FOR 538 Meteorology (3)
Three hours of lecture/discussion per week. An introduction to the atmospheric physical processes important to understanding weather and weather forecasting at the surface of the earth and macro-, synoptic-, meso-, and micro-climates. The emphasis is on synoptic and micro-scale phenomena. Students will learn how to access weather data on the Internet and use that data to forecast weather. At the micro-scale, emphasis is on describing conditions and projecting change. Fall.
Note: Credit will not be granted for both FOR 338 and FOR 538.

FOR 540 Watershed Hydrology (3)
Three hours of lecture per week. This course provides students with a detailed understnading of watershed hydrology, water quality and water management at the watershed scale, and offer the students the opportunity to gain in depth knowledge on one topic of particular interest to them through completion of a term project, and the development of a teaching/research presentation and interactive discussion with students in the class. Spring.
Prerequisites: FOR345 - Introduction to Soils Note: Credit will not be granted for both FOR 340 and FOR 540.

FOR 545 Introduction to Soils (3)
Two hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Introduction to the fundamentals of soil science in the context of soil as an ecosystem component. Fall.
Prerequisite or Co-requisite: one semester of Introductory Chemistry or permission of instructor. Note: Credit will not be granted for both FOR 345 and FOR 545.

FOR 546 Forest Soil Genesis, Classification, and Mapping (3)
Three hours of lecture per week during the first two-thirds of the semester. The last third of the semester is devoted to fieldwork and production of a soil map. Models of soil genesis, application of the U.S. system of soil taxonomy, and soil mapping. Spring.
Prerequisite: Introductory course in soil science.

FOR 557 Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems (3)
Three hours of lecture/discussion/recitation per week. Fundamental concepts of Geographic Information Systems (GIS); raster and vector data models and geodatabase design; common raster and vector data analysis tools used in the fields of forest and natural resources management, environmental science,conservation biology, ecology, and landscape architecture; cartographic model construction; and map design. Completion of an independent project is required. Fall
Prerequisite(s): none

FOR 560 Principles of Management for Environmental Professionals (3)
Three hours of lecture per week. This course focuses on the basic theories, concepts, principles and functions of modem management and administration, with an emphasis on the four functions of management: leading. planning, organizing, controlling. The four functions of management are applied to the public and private sectors, as well as for profit and not-for-profit organizations. Environmental management systems, corporate ethics and social responsibility and systematic problem solving are among the principal topics emphasized. Fall.
Prerequisite(s): none.

FOR 570 Forest Management Decision Making and Planning (3)
Two hours of lecture/discussion and three hours of laboratory per week. Introduction to the components of forest management decision making and planning. The topics include forest regulation, growth and yield, and harvest scheduling given that a landowner’s goals may include more than just commercial timber production. Sensitivity analysis of parameters used in forest management planning. Spring.
Prerequisites: FOR 322/522 and FOR 334/534 or permission of the instructor. Note: Credit will not be granted for both FOR 370 and FOR 570.

FOR 573 Forest Operations (3)
Two hours lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Overview of forest roads and timber harvesting; planning, construction, and maintenance of forest roads; economic and environmental characteristics of harvesting systems; safety and health; wood procurement systems; and the role of forest operations in the broader context of forest management. Emphasis on application of knowledge, requiring a written report with a problem-solving focus. Fall.
Prerequisite: FOR 322 and FOR 334 or permission of instructor. Note: Credit will not be granted for both FOR 373 and FOR 573.

FOR 601 Environmental Resources Management Workshop (2)
Three-week examination of a current topic in environmental resources management. Synthesis course that applies environmental resources management knowledge and techniques through a group consulting assignment for a government or non-government environmental resource organization. Spring (late Spring).
Prerequisite(s): 501: Introduction to Environmental Resources Management and completion of majority of ERM MPS coursework.

FOR 607 Restoration Ecology (3)
Three hours of lecture per week. Students investigate and apply major ecological concepts to ecosystem restoration, including abiotic and biotic resource limitation, ecophysiology, trophic webs, disturbance, climate change, and alternative ecosystem states. Diverse readings and interactive class discussions have broad relevance to restoration practitioners, conservation biologists, and environmental engineers. Fall.
Prerequisite(s): an ecology course or permission of instructor.

FOR 610 Environmental Resources Business (3)
Three hours of lecture per week. This course introduces the student to the fundamentals of business accounting and finance and their application to environmental management. The course is small enterprise oriented with emphasis on practical applications and problem solving techniques. The primary objective is to provide the student with the tools to understand and solve the basic accounting and financial problems confronting businesses and organizations in the environmental management field. Topics covered include basic accounting techniques, financial analysis, time value of money, valuation of assets, capital budgeting techniques, capital structure theory. Spring.

FOR 620 Silvicultural Concepts and Applications (3)
Three hours of lecture or six hours of field studies and three hours of independent study per week. Advanced study of silviculture, including the conceptual basis for designing prescriptions to serve a variety of landowner objectives. Concurrent independent work on assigned projects enhances problem-solving skills related to stand analysis and prescription making. Reports articulate the conceptual basis for recommendations, and discuss likely outcomes based upon findings from research and computer simulations. Field exercises provide practical experience in implementing silvicultural prescriptions. Spring.
Prerequisite: previous studies in silviculture at the baccalaureate or higher level.

FOR 626 Plant Tissue Culture Methods (3)
Two hours of lecture and discussion and three hours of laboratory per week. Introduction to plant tissue culture for biotechnology research and as a propagation method. Emphasis will be on learning laboratory instrumentation and techniques for establishing cell cultures, producing transgenic cell lines, and regenerating whole plants. In addition to the scheduled lab exercises, an independent micropropagation or transformation project will be required. Fall.
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. Note: Credit will not be granted for both BTC 426 and FOR/EFB 626.

FOR 635 Forest Soils and Their Analyses (3)
One hour of lecture, one hour of recitation, four hours of field and laboratory study of forest soils, emphasizing plant-soil relationships per week. Stress on quantification of plant-soil diagnostic techniques and their interpretation. Spring (odd years).
Prerequisite: FOR 446. Note: Background in physical and biological sciences recommended.

FOR 642 Watershed Ecology and Management (3)
Three hours of lecture and discussion per week. Introduction to watershed ecology and stream ecosystems. Interactions and linkages among upland, riparian and stream processes. Management and restoration associated with multiple uses of forest and rangelands. Explore influences of spatial and temporal scale, watershed and network position, disturbance regimes, and global change. Students will apply course concepts to an independent research project. Fall.
Note: Credit will not be granted for both FOR 442 and FOR 642.

FOR 658 Advanced GIS (3)
Five hours of class meeting per week. Lecture, demonstration, discussion, and lab exercises. Students learn to apply and evaluate advanced geoprocessing techniques in resource analysis and modeling. Students complete and present a capstone project. Spring.
Prerequisite(s): FOR557 or equivalent. This is a shared resource course and credit will not be granted for both FOR 458 and FOR 658.

FOR 665 Natural Resources Policy (3)
Three hours of lecture per week. Analysis and application of political, policy formation, and policy administration theories to natural resources. Examination of drivers of U.S. natural resources policies. Analysis of private lands, public lands, forest, wildlife, endangered species, water, fire, and certification policies. Focus is on U.S. natural resources policies. Spring.
Prerequisite: graduate standing.

FOR 670 Resource and Environmental Economics (3)
Three hours of lecture per week. An introductory course in resource and environmental economics. Apply economic theories and models to analyze decisions concerning the use of forest, marine, and water resources and to analyze policy tools for mitigating pollution created as a result of production and consumption. Fall.
Prerequisite: A course in economics.

FOR 676 Ecotourism and Nature Tourism (3)
Three hours of instruction per week. Overview of ecotourism and nature tourism programs and efforts around the world. Community, business, and organizational structures necessary for managing ecotourism and nature tourism programs. Environmental, social, and economic impacts. One-day field trip. Graduate level readings, assignments, and exams. Fall.
Prerequisite: FOR 372. Note: Credit will not be granted for both FOR 476 and FOR 676.

FOR 678 Wilderness and Wildlands Management (3)
Three hours of lecture per week and one, two-day, overnight field trip. Reviews the state and federal legislation and agency policies that frame the planning and management of public lands designated as wilderness or wildlands. Emphasizes the use of wilderness research information for adaptive management approaches to stewardship of and planning for protection of natural resources and human values. Fall.
Prerequisite: FOR 372 or equivalent. Note: Credit will not be granted for both FOR 478 and FOR 678.

FOR 680 Urban Forestry (3)
Three hours of lecture per week. Evaluation and management of urban greenspace resources, with emphasis on urban trees, in the context of other values and management processes in urban areas. Class practice in evaluating urban greenspace and tree resources, development of a research paper on urban forestry. Spring.
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. Note: Credit will not be granted for both FOR 480 and FOR 680.

FOR 685 Business and Managerial Law (3)
Three hours lecture/discussion per week. An introduction to the law governing business and management. Examination of sources of law, constitutional foundations, ethics, court systems and trials, contracts, agency, consumer law, security interests, bankruptcy, entrepreneurship law, corporations, torts, criminal law, personal property, real property, and wills and estates. Spring.

FOR 687 Environmental Law and Policy (3)
Three hours of lecture/discussion per week. Introduction to the approaches used in US environmental law. Analysis of common law and statutory designs and strategies used to address environmental problems. Examination of common law environmental remedies, Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Endangered Species Act, hazardous waste, and other environmental laws. Analysis and application of primary and secondary legal sources to business and management problems. Fall.
Note: Credit will not be granted for both FOR 487 and FOR 687.

FOR 689 Natural Resources Law and Policy (3)
Three hours of lecture/discussion per week. An introduction to the law governing the management of natural resources. Examination of the history and constitutional basis of natural resources law, wildlife and biodiversity law, protected lands law, water law, marine fisheries law, rangelands law, minerals law, and forest law. Analysis and application of natural resources law research and commentary. Spring.
Note: Credit will not be granted for both FOR 489 and FOR 689.

FOR 690 Integrated Resources Management (3)
One hour of lecture, three hours of laboratory and three hours of supervised work per week.This capstone course emphasizes the assimilation, integration and interpretation of the biophysical and socioeconomic sciences. It provides students with the opportunity to integrate skills and knowledge accumulated from professional and supporting coursework. The final deliverable is a written management plan. Spring.

FOR 692 Capstone in Forest and Natural Resources Management (3)
Three hours of seminar discussions and presentations per week. Students will integrate and apply their knowledge of forest natural resources management to practical problems of their own design in their areas of interest, in consultation with clients whom they identify to be in need of their professional services. Class sessions include opportunities to develop advanced knowledge and professional skills, such as research, analysis, management, and communication. The final project outcomes are delivered through written reports and oral presentations. Fall.

FOR 694 Writing for Scientific Publication (3)
Three hours of lecture and discussion per week. Students will improve their skills in technical reporting by preparing a manuscript suitable for submission to a scientific journal. Topics include selection of an appropriate journal, design of effective figures and tables, sequential preparation of sections of the manuscript, writing tips, peer review and ethical issues. Spring.

FOR 770 Ecological Economics and Policy (3)
Three hours of seminar per week. A transdisciplinary approach to understand the interface of human and ecological systems, includes concepts and methods of ecologists, economists, and social scientists. Focus is on historical, conceptual and epistemological foundations. Draws on contemporary economic and policy thought, evolutionary biology, ecology, systems theory, social psychology, and environmental ethics. Spring.
Prerequisite: Graduate coursework in ecology or economics; doctoral student standing, or permission of instructor.

FOR 796 Special Topics in Forest Resources Management (1 - 3)
Lectures, seminars, and discussion. Advanced topics in resource management and policy. Check schedule of classes for details of subject matter. Fall and/or Spring.

FOR 797 Seminar (1)
Individual presentation and group discussion concerning current topics of concern to natural resources or their management. Fall and Spring.

FOR 798 Research Problems in Forest and Natural Resources Management (1 - 12)
Special investigation and analysis of forest and natural resources management topics. A study plan and a final written report are required. Fall and Spring.

FOR 898 Professional Experience/Internship (1 - 6)
Professional experience/internship which applies, enriches, or complements formal coursework. All professional experiences/internships must have a signed experience/internship agreement on record with the advisor. Graded on an “S/U” basis. Fall, Spring, and Summer.

FOR 899 Master’s Thesis Research (1 - 12)
Investigation leading to the completion of a Master’s thesis. Graded on an “S/U” basis. Fall, Spring, and Summer.

FOR 999 Doctoral Thesis Research (1 - 12)
Investigation leading to the completion of the doctoral thesis. Graded on an "S/U" basis. Fall, Spring and Summer.

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FTC

FTC

FTC 101 Trigonometry for Natural Resource Technicians (3)
Forty hours of lecture and sixteen hours of recitation conducted over a four-week period. A review of selected geometry and algebra topics, and an introduction to trigonometry and its applications. Emphasis on pythagorean theorem, quadratic equations, rectangular coordinate systems, right triangle trigonometry, oblique triangle trigonometry, the Law of Sines, the Law of Cosines and the graphing of trigonometric functions. Graphic calculator required. Summer.

FTC 105 Tree and Forest Biology (4)
A four-week summer program having 45 hours of lecture and 45 hours of lab. An introduction to the biology of trees and the diversity of animal life commonly found in forests. Field labs concentrate on biological relationships in Adirondack forests. Summer.
Pre- or co-requisite(s): Four credits in biology.

FTC 200 Dendrology (3)
Thirty eight hours of lecture, and forty hours of field laboratory. Characteristics, distribution, and uses of tree species in North America. Identifying plant species using common and scientific names, from leaf, twig, fruit, or bark samples. Habitats, species associates, and succession of plants, including some invasive species. Fall.

FTC 202 Introduction to Surveying (3)
Twenty eight hours of lecture and 72 hours of laboratory and field exercises. The course is an introduction to the theory and practice of plane surveying. Emphasis is on developing individual skills and techniques through small crew projects where it is necessary to handle typical surveying equipment in actual field situations. Lecture topics include the theory of measurements and errors, field record keeping procedures, mathematics for plane surveying, introduction to field problems, introduction to map use and preparation, concepts of land tenure systems and basic computer aided drafting. Students tour the various offices found at the County courthouse and participate in a research exercise. Field projects include traversing using common forester’s and surveyor’s tools and instruments, mapping including field and office procedure, and proficiency projects in handling various surveying instruments. Fall.

FTC 204 Introduction to Natural Resources Measurements (5)
Sixty hours of lecture and forty five hours of field/laboratory. A study of the tools and techniques used to measure primary forest products and inventory and/or measure natural resources, such as timber, water, biomass, carbon stocks, wildlife habitat, recreation use and impact, and plant diversity. Professional presentation of forest inventory data in the form of technical reports. Basic forest sampling methods are used and compared, and associated statistical methods are learned and applied. Fall.
Prerequisite(s): none.

FTC 205 Computer Aided Drafting and Design 1 (2)
Eighteen hours of lecture and 36 hours of laboratory time. An introductory course in computer aided drafting. Emphasis is on developing individual skills and techniques for making professional quality drawings and maps. Topics include the drawing, editing, layer management, dimensioning, survey computations, data reduction, contouring and Geographic Information Systems. Fall.
Prerequisite(s): FTC 202 - Introduction to Surveying

FTC 206 Forest Ecology (4)
Fifty-one hours of lecture and fifty-six hours of laboratory and field. Study of interactions between forest vegetation and the environment. Considers how sunlight, moisture, soils and climate impact species presence, composition and growth. Human dimension of forest ecology, including critical thinking and evaluation of environmental issues. Fall.

FTC 207 Communications and Safety (3)
Twenty six hours lecture and fifty eight hours laboratory provides students with technical competence. Students develop study skills, handwriting skills, computer skills and communication skills including how to use library services. A resume and cover letter will be prepared for use in the job search process. Students receive training on the proper use and maintenance of forest hand tools and chainsaws. Students receive advanced training in the use and maintenance of chainsaws, and skidding equipment. First Aid and CPR/AED are covered as well as wilderness first aid. Prepares students for living in remote areas. Fall
Prerequisite(s): none.

FTC 208 Remote Sensing and GIS Technology (3)
Thirty hours of lecture and forty-five hours of laboratory. This course is an introduction to the use of remote sensing and geographic information systems in the field of natural resources. Students practice interpretation of aerial photographs and digital imagery to measure horizontal distances and azimuths and calculate ground area. Acquisition, creation and basic analysis of spatial data are also emphasized. Fall.
Prerequisite(s): None.

FTC 209 Timber Harvesting (2)
Eighteen hours of lecture and thirty six hours of laboratory or field instruction. Student learns basic harvesting methods with northeastern United States emphasis and its relationship to other forest uses. Student understand the role of best management practices in timber harvesting. A technical competence in timber sale contract administration and basic timber appraisal is gained. Fall.
Co-requisite(s): FTC 204, FTC 207.

FTC 210 Wildlife Techniques (2)
Eighteen hours of lecture and thirty-six hours field and laboratory time. Standard methods and techniques for measuring, monitoring, controlling and evaluating wildlife populations are discussed, demonstrated and/or practiced. Further practice in measuring and evaluating wildlife habitat. Identification of common birds, amphibians, reptiles and mammals by sight and sound. Fall.
Prerequisites: FTC 200, FTC 202, and FTC 204.

FTC 211 Silviculture (4)
Forty-five hours lecture and sixty hours field lab. Regeneration and tending of forest stands. Physical and chemical treatments used for growing forests in the northeastern states. Introduction to silviculture in the southern and western states. Methods for quantifying and predicting forest growth. Marking timber stands for harvesting. Establishing new stands. Spring.
Prerequisites: FTC 200, FTC 204, and FTC 206.

FTC 212 Adirondack Cultural Ecology (2)
Twenty two hours of lecture and twenty eight hours of field laboratory. Development of the Adirondack Park as influenced by the exploitation and eventual conservation of the region’s natural resources. An historical review and contemporary assessment of the political, economic, and sociologic issues that define and influence Adirondack culture. Guest speakers, public meeting attendance, and field trips within the Park reinforce cultural history and emphasize the role of individuals, organizations, and agencies in managing the unique blend of public and private lands that comprise the Park. Spring.
Prerequisite(s): none

FTC 213 Forest Inventory Practicum (2)
Six hours of lecture and sixty four hours of field/laboratory. A practical field problem requiring students to use professional methods of collecting, analyzing, and presenting forest inventory data. Inventory of the timber/biomass resource and the development of a forest type map are emphasized. Spring.
Prerequisites: FTC 200, FTC 202, FTC 204, and FTC 208.

FTC 214 Leadership and Organizational Performance (2)
Twenty-two hours of lecture and twenty-four hours of laboratory time. Provides students with technical competence and decision-making abilities. Students learn about company and agency organization; the selection, placement, training, and evaluation of workers; managing crews and the techniques of foremanship; and human relations in the workplace, with emphasis on the special personnel problems of the forest and surveying industries. Spring.
Prerequisite(s): FTC 207 Communications and Safety

FTC 217 Wildland Firefighting and Ecology (2)
Twenty-five hours of lecture and sixteen hours of laboratory and field. An introduction to fire science. Learn basic principles of fire ecology, behavior, danger rating and control. Practical experience conducting a prescribed burn. Spring.
Prerequisite(s): FTC 200, FTC 204, FTC 206, FTC 210.

FTC 219 Introduction to Forest Recreation (1)
Fourteen hours of lecture and twenty hours field and laboratory time. A study of forest-recreation resources, their importance to humans, and of the basic history, laws and principles underlying forest-recreation management in the United States. The technical aspects of recreation management are emphasized, as is the study of public-land management, including wilderness. Spring.
Pre-requisites: FTC 207.

FTC 221 Natural Resources Management (3)
Thirty-five hours of lecture and thirty hours of laboratory and field. Addresses common issues in organizing a forest property to meet stakeholder goals. Techniques of growth and resource measurement, monitoring, and evaluation are emphasized. Examples and case studies of forest management and production activities are presented. A final project involves the application of knowledge accumulated at the ESF Ranger School in a management plan for an assigned forest property. Spring.
Prerequisites: FTC 204, FTC 206 and FTC 208.

FTC 224 Field Applications (1)
Forty hours field laboratory visiting various facilities, including private, state, industrial, nongovernmental organizations and other groups. Students will learn how these agencies address financial, political, and environmental concerns within their professional fields. Spring
Prerequisite(s): none

FTC 225 Timber Transportation and Utilization (3)
Forty three lecture hours and forty three laboratory hours. Students gain knowledge of graveled forest road administration, location, design, construction, and maintenance. Differences in wood structure, and their effects on wood products of various species are studied. Spring.
Prerequisites: FTC 208, and FTC 210. Co-requisite: 259.

FTC 234 Wildlife Conservation (3)
Thirty-eight hours of lecture and twenty hours field and laboratory time. An introduction to the history and evolution of wildlife-related policies and laws, and to the biological, ecological, economical and sociological principles underlying wildlife management and conservation efforts in the United States. Terrestrial vertebrate animals serve as the basis of discussions and case studies. Students improve their communication skills by presenting papers and speeches on wildlife-related topics. Spring.
Prerequisite: FTC 206.

FTC 236 Interpretive Techniques in Forest Recreation (2)
Twenty-eight hours of lecture and twenty-four hours field and laboratory time. Students complete NAI's Certified Interpretive Guide course, and more closely study the relationship between interpretation and recreation management. Students improve their communication skills by presenting papers, speeches and interpretive posters. Spring.
Pre-requisites: FTC 200, FTC 202, FTC 204, and FTC 208.

FTC 237 Introduction to Water and Soil Resources (3)
Thirty-seven hours of lecture and twenty-four hours of laboratory and field. Introduction to watershed ecology and soil science. Interactions among upland, riparian, stream and wetland systems, including the hydrologic cycle. Study and measurement of soil physical, chemical and biological characteristics and processes. Recognize soil and water resource management and protection issues associated with multiple uses of forest lands. Spring.
Prerequisites: FTC 202, FTC 206, and FTC 208.

FTC 238 Forest Insects and Disease (3)
Thirty-five hours of lecture and twenty-six hours of laboratory and field. An introduction to forest insects and diseases. Explore ecological roles and identify selected insects and pathogens based on morphology, signs and symptoms. Discuss integrated pest management and other control measures. Spring.
Prerequisites: FTC 200, and FTC 206.

FTC 239 GIS Applications (2)
Fifteen hours of lecture and forty-five hours of laboratory. Introduction to acquisition, manipulation, and creation of geospatial data using geographic information systems. Build geodatabases, use geoprocessing tools, work with attribute data in both Excel and ArcGIS. Plan and conduct a simple geospatial analysis project. Spring.
Prerequisites: FTC 202, and FTC 208.

FTC 251 Advanced Surveying Measurements and Computations (5)
Fifty-five hours of lecture and sixty hours of field and laboratory time. Advanced survey measurements and computational techniques including traverse calculations, rectangular coordinates, statistical analysis of surveying data, state plane coordinates, meridian determination, partition of land, trigonometric leveling and horizonal control are explored. Students will make the necessary surveying measurements in the field and be expected to complete various surveying measurements using a calculator and computer. Spring.
Prerequisite: FTC 202. Co-requisite: FTC 257.

FTC 253 Survey Law (3)
Thirty five hours of lecture and 30 hours of laboratory time. The course is a study of courthouse real property research, property boundary determination by various methods, case and statute law as it relates to real property and land surveying, legal research and the liability and professionalism of the practicing land surveyor. Spring.
Prerequisite: FTC 202.

FTC 255 Boundary Surveying (3)
Thirty hours of lecture and forty-five hours of field and laboratory time. A study of the procedures necessary to conduct a retracement survey including preliminary office procedures, field practices, and preparation of final survey documents. Students will complete a retracement survey and use the compiled data in a mock trial. Spring.
Prerequisite: FTC 202. Co-requisite: FTC 253.

FTC 256 Subdivision Surveys (2)
Twenty hours of lecture and 30 hours of laboratory time. An introduction to the preparation of a multi-lot subdivision of a parcel of real estate. Development of a subdivision in relation to topography, zoning requirements, utility services, existing and proposed roads or streets and client requests. Students learn to design minor storm drain facilities in relation to the subdivisions. The student will incorporate all of the above while using survey software. Spring.
Prerequisite: FTC 202. Co-requisite: FTC 259.

FTC 257 Construction and Topographic Surveys (3)
Twenty-five hours lecture and sixty hours field and laboratory. A study of the various methods and techniques used to perform construction and topographic surveys and develop topographic maps. Theory, mathematics, and layout of circular, spiral and vertical curves. Layout of various construction projects including buildings, roads, pipelines and bridges will be discussed. Earthwork, staking and cross-section calculations will also be covered. Students complete a topographic mapping project and develop maps using appropriate surveying and mapping software. Spring.
Co-requisites: FTC 252 and FTC 259.

FTC 259 Computer Aided Drafting and Design II (2)
Eighteen hours of lecture and thirty hours of laboratory time. A course in computer aided drafting. Emphasis is on developing individual skills and techniques for making professional quality drawings and maps. Topics include the drawing, editing, layer management, dimensioning, survey computations, data reduction, contouring and GIS. Spring.
Prerequisite(s): FTC 202 - Introduction to Surveying, FTC 205 Computer aided Drafting and Design I.

FTC 298 Independent Study in Forest Technology (1 - 6)
Independent study in forest technology to apply, enhance or supplement forest technology or related natural resource education. Objectives and scope of the project are negotiated in a learning contract between the student and instructor(s), with course admission based on permission of the instructor(s). Limited to those who have attended the complete regular SFT program, or those who have graduated from another forest technology program or a related natural resource program, or to students enrolled in any ESF program other than SFT. A maximum of six credit hours may be taken by any student in total. Semesters as arranged. Fall, Spring or Summer.


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State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry
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