A multi-method analysis is presented of the land use patterns and resource management strategies of remote forest communities of the central African humid forest zone. The study site is the sparsely populated Dja forest in Cameroon’s South and East Provinces. Cropping, gun hunting and trapping are the major sources of livelihood. Efforts to reduce wildlife exploitation curtail households’ sources of protein, cash income, and lead to increased cropping pressures in the reserve and peripheral forests. Data from focused characterization and diagnostic surveys of land use patterns and household management strategies are presented.
Three principal field types are identified with the villagers cropping patterns. Households earn incomes from sales of forest products and from diversified farm and non-farm enterprises in addition to incomes from cropping. Villages with relatively large populations and close proximity to motor roads engage in greater number of income enterprises and put more emphasis on food field activities for market. Households in more isolated and smaller villages devote more time to subsistence cropping and different levels of forest resources exploitation. Mean differences in land use patterns and management strategies are significantly greater among household groups within villages than between villages.
Analyses are presented on the Dja smallholder management system and its linkages. Village population or size is identified as the most important underlying factor of variation in the households’ field management intensification strategies. Proximity to market towns or motor road and household size and dependency ratio are important factors of variation in the Dja smallholder on-farm and non-farm enterprise diversification strategies.
Six groups of households are distinguished with respect to village circumstances, household characteristics, and resource management strategies. Analyses on the food, income, and forest resources exploitation effects of the household groups’ strategies are also presented. Households in which management strategies involve more diversified livelihood activities in addition to cropping, generate more total revenue and have lower rates of mature forest clearing and wildlife uptake compared to the households in which strategies are highly focussed on food and tree crops activities.
Key Words: Multi-method analysis, smallholder, household, resources, management, characterization, diagnosis, differentiate, sustainability, strategies, land use intensity, enterprise diversification, forest exploitation
Author’s Name: Nathaniel Sebeh Appleton
Doctor of Philosophy degree: December 1999
Major Professor: Dr. Hugh Canham
In 1992 PT Hutan Kusuma started implementing the Plantation and Transmigration Project based on the act of Ministry of Forestry No. 257 of 1992. The purpose of the project was to improve and manage forest resources by establishing an industrial forest plantation and to increase job opportunities for local people and transmigrants. This thesis is a case study of the PT Hutan Kusuma Plantation and Transmigration Project. It reports a qualitative analysis of project implementation related to the local community in Ritan Baru Village. The data and information were collected primarily during a one-month visit to the project area and Ritan Baru Village. Rapid Rural Appraisal was the method used in this study. The method included using open-ended interviews as a technique to collect primary data and information. The following conclusions were drawn: PT Hutan Kusuma has not yet implemented the transmigration program, but the company can learn from its experience interacting with the local community. The HTI-Trans project concentrated more on the plantation and transmigration; therefore, not enough attention has been given to the interest of the local community. The local community receives some benefits such as job opportunities, increased income, improving physical access to the area, introduction of new species, and facilitates contacts with outsiders. However, they also have problems such as increasing dependency on the company, reduced income for non-timber forest products, reduced land available for cultivation, and reduced traditional respect. The company is the closest institution that has responsibility to develop the nearby village; in this study case: Ritan Baru Village. The results are specific to the study area and may not be valid in other areas of Indonesia.
Keywords: social forestry, community, plantation, transmigration, tropical forestry, East Kalimantan, Indonesia, rapid rural appraisal.
Author’s Name: Laksmi Banowati
Master of Science degree: August 1998
Major Professor: Dr. John E. Wagner
The Sierra palm (Prestoea montana) of the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF) in Puerto Rico exhibits a markedly reduced area of internodes flanked on either side by segments of larger internode distances on its stem. Internode distances were measured for 140 palms on EV-3, a long-term study plot in the LEF, in order to explore the potential relationship between the shortened internodes and disturbances such as the drought that occurred during 1993-95. Internode distances of palms from 1988, 1993, and 1998 ingrowth classes were compared. Younger, smaller palms (1998 ingrowth class) presented a less pronounced shortening of internodes than did older, taller palms (1988 and 1993 ingrowth classes. Palms responded to canopy openings with increasing growth. Drought effects or disturbances from Hurricane Hugo may have been causal factors.
Key words: Prestoea montana. Prestoea acuminata, internodes, Luquillo Experimental Forest, drought, hurricane.
Author’s Name: Troy Patrick Beldini
Master of Science degree: May 2000
Major Professor: Dr. Allan P. Drew
This study analyzes the current territorial organization of the state of Acre, Brazil, and performs a preliminary macrozoning plan as a result of the future paving of the BR-364 highway. A geographic information system (Arc/Info) was used to develop a data base containing information on roads, deforested and protected areas, soils and biological priority areas for conservation. This information system was utilized to perform a spatial analysis. Compartment and management models were used as theoretical frameworks to develop the proposed macrozoning plan. A spatial balance between conservation and development objectives was attempted. Results show that deforestation is largely occurring in areas unsuitable for intensive agriculture. Evidence also suggests that extractive and indigenous reserves are protecting important areas for biological conservation. Finally, existing national parks and ecological stations are well located in terms of biological priority areas for conservation. The macrozoning plan shows that an integrated land use plan for the state of Acre, and the paving of the BR-364 are spatially compatible.
Author’s Name: Andre Felman da Cunha Rego
Master of Science degree: August 1993
Major Professors: Dr. Allan P. Drew and Prof. James Coufal
Sampling of three undisturbed, three 4 to 6 year-old selectively cut and one 15 year-old patch-cut old-growth stands was undertaken in Evergreen forests between 39 and 41 degrees S latitude in the Coastal Cordillera and mid elevations of the mountains of the central valley of Chile. Tepa (Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser) Schodde or Laurelia philippiana Looser), followed by ulmo (Eucryphia cordifolia Cav., Eucryphiaceae) were the most important species in these stands. Olivillo (Aextoxicon punctatum R. et Pav., Aextocicaceae) was also important in the two stands sampled at lower elevations. Plots 1000 m2 in size were used to characterize the diameter structure of the stands, and 2 m2 plots used to characterize regeneration and understory vegetation. Also, approximately 100 trees were sampled in each stand for assessment of diameter growth. Several variables allowed determination of poorer site quality in the western side of the Coastal Cordillera. In stands dominated by shade-tolerant species, diameter distributions had a reverse-J shape and good fits to the negative exponential model. In stands with =50 percent of the basal area in shade-tolerant species, diameter structures resembled a rotated-S shape, and they had their best fits to polynomial models. Regeneration of commercial species was affected in poor and good sites by one understory species and some indicator of canopy cover. On average regeneration was more abundant in good sites (17,994 vs. 6,230 seedlings 5-200 cm tall per ha). Diameter growth of tepa increased with tree diameter (up to about 50 cm in good sites and 40 cm in poor sites), with lower basal area, after cutting (especially trees <40 cm dbh), and was higher in plots with >50 percent of the trees from 5 to 25 cm dbh. Better regeneration and growth were observed in plots with a lower canopy cover, and where it was balanced among broad diameter (age) classes. The study shows the suitability of these forests to the use of selection system, some basic ecological knowledge and guidelines for its application, and supports the idea of balancing canopy area among diameter classes in order to attain better growth and regeneration of the desired species.
Author’s Name: Pablo Jorge Donoso
Doctor of Philosophy degree: April 2002
Major Professor: Dr. Ralph D. Nyland
Those concerned with deforestation in semi-arid regions of Africa have regularly underestimated the impact of land clearing for agriculture. This oversight may be the result of the non-spatial nature of wood “supply and demand” studies by energy analysts and their oversimplification of the dynamics of rural land use. In the Republic of Botswana, efforts to achieve food self-sufficiency and facilitate the mechanization of crop production led the Ministry of Agriculture to subsidize land clearing by subsistence farmers throughout much of the 1980’s. The deforestation associated with this clearing was not accounted for by government sponsored energy studies undertaken during this period.
Within the thesis, a model linking the dynamics of the bush-fallow agricultural system with the wood collection activities of consumers for a rural community predicts the feasibility of achieving national food self-sufficiency and maintaining adequate wood stocks. Data layers on land use, demography, woody biomass growing stock, and projections of population growth, food self-sufficiency, wood exports, etc., are incorporated in a spatial process model of agricultural land clearing and wood collection to simulate changes in the landscape, wood resources, and the extent of food self-sufficiency through the year 2010.
The results predict more heavily populated agricultural areas will be most seriously affected by deforestation due to land clearing, while complete deforestation of a site due to live tree harvesting for fuel does not occur before the year 2000. Neither wood exports from the study area, nor agroforestry efforts by farmers in the area significantly affected the results during the period. The model and its projections are limited by potential errors in the estimates of key parameters such as mean annual increment and the assumed efficiency of wood salvaged during land clearing. Recommended alterations to the software and data are discussed.
With the model attributing most of the deforestation to extensive agriculture and land clearing, recent policy shifts toward sustainable agriculture by the Ministry of Agriculture present the opportunity to introduce woodland and vegetation conservation programs aimed at enabling farmers, wood collectors, and traders to better manage their resources and maintain the productivity of their agricultural land.
Author’s Name: Phillip George Eskeli
Master of Science degree: May 1993
Major Professor: Dr. Janis Petriceks
Belize is a popular tourist destination and known for development issues and opportunities related to ecotourism and nature based tourism. Many ecotourism and nature based tourism destinations have experienced different impacts such as economic development, infrastructure, building of hotels and resorts, and sociocultural impacts.
Most ecotourists travel in Belize using tour operators. Therefore, this project attempts to study some questions related to tour operations, such as, are tour operations providing benefits to local people? Are tour operations causing more negative than positive impact to the host communities?
Research is not frequently conducted to measure the sociocultural impacts of ecotourism and nature based tourism. Tourism research has been focused primarily on the economic and environmental issues. In response, this research project provides a general view of ecotourism and nature based tourism in Belize, and proposes an ecotourism and nature based tourism research framework to assess two sociocultural impacts of tour operations in Belize: (1) changes in forms of local employment, and (2) the growth of resentment and hostility towards tourists by local people.
Author’s Name: Edgar Francisco Godoy Anleu
Master of Science Degree: May 1995
Major Professor: Dr. Chad Dawson
Forestry administration and the implementation of reforestation in the Philippines is being carried out through the Forest Management Bureau (FMB), a staff bureau of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). The forestry bureaucracy has been a product of several political events which happened at the national level, since 1863 when the Inspeccion General de Montes was established until the advent of the Filipinization phase of forestry administration in the country. Yet, the influence of previous colonizers through their financial institutions still continues, most notably when reforestation was privatized in 1986 through the implementation of the National Forestation Program (NFP). The NFP is basically carried out by contracting reforestation activities to individual groups. The local forestry bureaucracy, the Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Office (PENRO) in Bulacan is a product of the re-organization in 1987, and has been greatly empowered in the implementation of the NFP. The implementation of the NFP in Bulacan started in 1988 and is now in its terminal phase. The performance of the NFP was notable in that it became a source of income in the uplands. Nonetheless, this plus factor is offset by problems that are purely institutional in nature; cases of delay in the disbursements of fund, red tape, and graft and corruption. The future of the NFP ultimately rests on the continued allocation for the protection and maintenance of established forest plantations and the willingness of the bureaucracy to respond more to the requirements of the program. The direction of the present institutional structure, on the other hand, basically depends on the country’s political environment.
Author’s Name: Perfecta Balmes-Hinojosa
Doctor of Philosophy Degree: August 1994
Major Professor: Dr. Norman Richards
The Mae Moh Valley region of northern Thailand experiences frequent pollutant fumigation events during the annual cool season. The onset and magnitude of these events are driven by the synoptic scale and mesoscale conditions that develop over the Valley during the cool season. A conclusion from previous studies conducted in the Valley was that to properly predict the onset and magnitude of the fumigation events, a three dimensional wind field generated using a mesoscale meteorological model needed to be used in a mesoscale transport and dispersion model. The results of the previous studies led to the modeling analysis presented in this dissertation.
The research hypothesis was that it would be possible to develop a mesoscale dispersion modeling system that could simulate the Valley fumigation events. The null hypothesis was that the air dispersion modeling system could not simulate the fumigation events. The Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Meteorological Model, Version 5 (MM5) was used to generate the mesoscale meteorological parameters used as input to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) CALMET/CALPUFF mesoscale dispersion and transport model. These models were used to forecast one fumigation event observed in 1997. Three model scenarios were considered for the fumigation event. The differences in the model scenarios were a function of modifications to terrain and horizontal and vertical grid resolutions used by MM5. Output from the combined MM5/CALMET was compared with observations to document the modeling system’s strengths and limitations.
The results from this study indicated that MM5 appeared to be capable of simulating the temperature profile required to produce a fumigation event in the Valley. However, due to errors in the input meterorological data, MM5 was not capable of forecasting the light and variable wind conditions present within the Valley prior to and during the fumigation events. These wind field errors contributed to errors in the CALMET and CALPUFF calculations. The theoretical procedure for this modeling system appears to be correct. However, more research is needed to determine what corrections need to be made to the input data and models to improve the fumigation simulation within the Valley.
Author’s Name: Karen J. Kowalewski
Doctor of Philosophy degree: December 2000
Major Professor: Dr. Lee Herrington
Tree volume prediction equations for various groupings of tree species were developed using data from the Forest Survey and Inventory Project of Myanmar (Burma). Three regression models were evaluated, one based on actual volume, one based on standing tree volume, and one combining information from standing tree and actual volume. The third model was found to be the best, but this model requires felled tree data which may not be practical to obtain. Several methods of aggregating tree species were also considered. Finally, the aggregation methods and volume prediction results were applied to the Myanmar data to develop tree volume prediction equations for various tree species groups.
Keywords: Aggregating tree species, forest inventory, Myanmar, regression.
Author’s Name: Htun Lynn
Master of Science degree: September 1993
Major Professor: Prof. Tiberius Cunia
Historically, much small catchment hydrology has focused on hillslopes and related flow processes. Concurrently, much riparian research has focused on nutrient transformation. Little research has attemped to integrate hillslope and riparian investigative approaches with catchment runoff in order to estimate their relative roles in stormflow and baseflow generation, the partitioning of old and new water, impact on stream water residence time, and subsequent control of stream chemistry. Furthermore, little is understood about landscape controls on streamflow generation and composition. To address this, we discretized the Maimai catchments into their main landscape components (hillslopes and riparian zones). Isolation and classification of the response characteristics of each landscape unit was possible through instrumentation of each landscape unit from a trenched and gauged hillslope to riparian zones at successively larger catchment scales. This landscape discretization approaches was tested with a continuity-based hydrometric model, as well as isotopic/solute mass-balance hydrograph separation techniques, to assess the spatial and temporal sources of catchment runoff. We quantified the sequencing of landscape unit contributions to catchment runoff. We used this landscape discretization approach to elucidate controls on DOC export dynamics. Results suggest that the relative timing of riparian and hillslope source contributions, connections and disconnections of dominant runoff contributing areas, as well as the internal dynamics of these zones, are a first approximation of catchment controls on catchment runoff DOC concentrations and mass export. We present a simple method for quantifying the local contributions of hillslope area and riparian area along a stream network based on gridded digital elevation data. The method enables us to compute characteristics of a catchment such as the distribution of inputs to the stream network and the riparian to hillslope area ratios along the stream network. For the entire catchment the ratio between riparian and hillslope area was 0.14. We calculated this "buffer-capacity" along the stream network, and found the values were below 0.14 for 75% of the stream length and below 0.06 for 50% of the stream length. The combination of plot scale investigative approaches, landscape discretization, and a new method for landscape analysis provided insight into the first-order controls on runoff and solute dynamics and served as a framework for investigating the role of catchment scale and landscape organization in runoff generation.
Author’s Name: Brian Leonard McGlynn
Doctor of Philosophy degree: April 2002
Co-major Professors: Dr. Elizabeth W. Boyer and Dr. Jeffrey J. McDonnell
In 1994, the Government of Guatemala formally started the implementation of a forest concessions policy in the Maya Biosphere Reserve (MBR). The purpose was to conserve the natural resources of the area and improve the living conditions of the local villagers. This study makes a qualitative analysis of that process, by examining its main components and the evolutionary process itself. The information was collected mainly during a one-month visit to the MBR in 1996. The following conclusions were drawn: the process legal framework is composed of two laws, a Master Plan, and specific regulatory documents. The main agents are the National Council for Protected Areas (CONAP), the local communities, the local forest industry, USAID, and three NGOs. The process has evolved slowly due mainly to the CONAP’s inefficiency. This is an early evaluation of the process due to the small area granted and the relatively short time elapsed.
Key words: forest concessions, forest management, community forestry, forest policy, tropical forestry, biosphere reserves, Guatemala.
Author’s Name: Mario Alberto Mendez Munoz
Master of Science degree: August 1997
Major Professor: Dr. Norman Richards
Low crop production, largely attributable to low soil fertility status, is a critical problem in Zambia. Agroforestry that incorporates fallow using tree leaves of N-fixing trees and shrubs as a green manure is a possible solution.
The objectives of the study were to investigate the green manure system, specifically to determine: (i) whether decomposition rates of foliage differs among the multipurpose trees (MPTs) Leucaena leucocephala (LEL), Flemingia congesta (FLC), Pericopsis angolensis (PEA), Cassia siamea (CAS), Sesbania sesban (SES), and Gliricidia sepium (GLS), (ii) whether N, P and K concentrations of foliage differs among the MPTs, LEL, FLC, PEA, CAS, SES, and GLS, and (iii) whether N, P and K content released from foliage differs among the MPTs, LEL, FLC, PEA, CAS, SES, and GLS.
Litter bags containing foliage from each species were arranged in a randomized block design with three replicates. Litter bags were sampled at 0, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks in a repeated measures manner, after placement to determine decomposition and nutrient release.
Estimates were made of nutrient mineralization and equations developed for predicting rate of decomposition, nutrient concentration, and nutrient content for each species. Significant differences existed in decomposition rates (GLS>LEL=SES>CAS>PEA=FLC),
N contents (GLS=LEL)>SES>(PEA=FLC=CAS),
P concentrations CAS>(SES=FLC=GLS=PEA=LEL),
P contents (GLS=LEL)>(CAS=PEA=SES=FLC),
K concentrations (GLS=LEL=SES)>CAS>PEA>FLC) and
K contents (GLS>LEL>SES>PEA>CAS>FLC).
No significant differences existed in N concentration.
Author’s Name: Mwiinga, Robson Denver
Master of Science degree: December 1991
Major Professor: Dr. Edwin H. White
This study examined multiple-use values, silvicultural impacts of timber management, and the sustainability of forest management in two of Uganda’s most important tropical forest reserves. Field data for the study was collected between June and December of 1995.
Multiple-use forest values consisting of six major tropical forest outputs were evaluated in a total of five timber management and two unlogged nature reserve compartments in the two forests, taking into consideration the relative importance of the outputs expressed as weights assigned by three groups of forestry professionals.
A comparison of the multiple-use values of the two forests indicated that timber management compartments which were treated with arboricide or charcoal refining and enrichment planting after logging had higher summed scores of assigned forest output weights x compartment output magnitudes than those which were only treated with arboricide or selectively logged without any amelioration. Unlogged and untreated nature reserve compartments had the lowest summed scores.
Silvicultural impacts of the five timber management prescriptions were examined by evaluating and comparing tree genera richness, evenness, and structure of timber management and unlogged nature reserve compartments in the two forests. The evaluation indicated that while there were significant differences in tree genera richness between most compartments, there was no evidence to support the commonly held view that nature reserve compartments had higher tree genera richness and evenness than timber management ones. The data revealed that tree genera diversity of timber management compartments was similar to or higher than that of nature reserve compartments. There were no major differences in forest structure between all the compartments studied in either forest.
An assessment of the sustainability of management of the two forests, based on International Tropical Timber Organization criteria, indicated that the current forest management regime for the two forests is potentially sustainable mainly due to the presence of a sizable professional staff with substantial management experience, and a legally secure forest estate. Forest management constraints included poor financing, political interference, a high growth rate of a population dependent on subsistence agriculture, widespread illegal activities, and limited investment in supplementary forest production projects such as agroforestry and expansion of industrial plantations.
Key words: Tropical forest management, multiple-use forest values, sustainable management.
Author’s Name: Peter Ndemere
Doctor of Philosophy degree: August 1997
Major Professor: Dr. Norman Richards
Two methods to estimate aboveground biomass of individual trees from tropical forests are evaluated and refined. They are the scaling factor method and the derived local biomass equation method.
The scaling factor method assumes that stem wood density is constant for different tree sizes and that the allometric relationship between crown and stem biomass is isometric. However, it was found that Vochysia ferruginia, a shade-intolerant species, does not have constant wood density across diffferent tree sizes. It was also found that Tetragastris panamensis, a shade tolerant species, does not exhibit an isometric crown to stem biomass allometry. For this last species the scaling exponent (b1) in the constant allometric (CAR) model was greater than one, indicating that this species develops heavier crowns than expected.
The derived local biomass equation method requires a set of standard biomass equations to estimate tree biomass as a function of tree diameter and height. Several models were tested, and it was found that the best regression model was the Schumacher-Hall Model. This method also requires the development of a set of height-diameter functions for each forest stand in which the biomass equations are going to be applied. Several height-diameter models have been proposed with this objective. The model most frequently used assumes that the allometric relationship between tree height and diameter is constant. However, it was found that shade-tolerant and partial shade-tolerant tree species exhibit a variable height-diameter allometry, whereas Vochysia ferruginia, a shade-intolerant species has a constant height-diameter allometry. It is concluded that only the derived local biomass equation method can be properly and practically applied to estimate aboveground biomass of individual trees in dense tropical wet forests.
This result is used to formulate a system of equations to estimate aboveground tree biomass for a tropical wet forest from the region of Sarapiqui, Costa Rica. A preliminary test of the system of equations was performed using the same data set from which the equations were developed. The bias percentage of the proposed system of equations is 0.185%. The standard deviation of the estimation errors is 383.99 kg/tree, which represents 24.0% of the mean of the observed values.
Key words: tree biomass, height-diameter allometry, height-diameter models, standard biomass equations, scaling factors, tropical trees and forests.
Author’s Name: Edgar Ortiz-Malavasi
Doctor of Philosophy degree: April 1997
Major Professor: Dr.Donald Koten
Ethnic diversity is inceasing in natural resources-based recreation participation, and this increasing trend is one of the most important issues in recreation research in recent years. This exploratory study investigates three major issues related to crowding norms and ethnicity in downhill ski areas: how crowding norms vary by the different ethnic characteristics of skiers, which crowding norms determine the ethnic characteristics of skiers, and how crowding norms affect perceived crowding in downhill ski areas.
Through an on-site questionnaire survey, 1,157 skiers were surveyed at the Hunter Mt. Ski Area, NY, USA and Yong Pyeong Ski Resort, Korea. Perceived level of crowding and four variables (motivation for skiing, preference for ski area density, expectation for ski area density, and experience level of skiing) affecting perceived crowding were measured. The measured variables were tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test and ANOVA to examine differences in crowding norms between ethnic groups and ski areas. Discriminant analysis was used to examine what crowding norms were most important for determining skiers’ ethnic characteristics. Path analysis was used to test the multivariate relationship between crowding norms and perceived crowding.
This exploratory study found that the crowding norms of Korean skiers in the USA were more similar to the host ethnic group (White skiers in USA), than to their original racial group (Korean skier in Korea). In contrast, white skiers in Korea were not similar to crowding norms experienced by the host ethnic group (Korean skiers in Korea). They were similar to their original racial group. These results might be due to different acculturation levels in the host country. The experience level of skiing influenced other crowding norms, so Korean skiers in Korea who had the lowest experience level of skiing had different crowding norms compared to the other three groups. Another finding was that behavioral and cognitive coping procedures intervene in multivariate relationships between crowding norms and perceived crowding. These findings suggest that understanding a skier’s coping behaviors may be a more effective management tool for providing a quality user experience, rather than controlling skier density (skiers per acre on downhill ski slope) beyond some design theory or standard. In order to understand skier’s coping behavior, ski area managers need accumulated quantitative and qualitative data through continuous monitoring of skier behavior and/or skier behavior surveys.
Author’s Name: Chung In Park
Doctor of Philosophy degree: December 1996
Major Professor: Dr. Chad Dawson
In southwest Costa Rica 11 sites representing a chronosequence of formerly pastured lands to undisturbed forests, and one tree plantation were selected for application of the hydrogeomorphic approach, a tool designed to assess wetland functions in the U.S. Models for the maintenance of characteristic soil hydro-structure condition and maintenance of spatial structure of habitat were developed and used to examine the degree to which selected sites within the chronosequence depart from the undisturbed condition of the natural forest. An index of the function showed for the maintenance of characteristic soil hydro-structure that the 20-year-old forest is ca. 60 percent of the condition of the undisturbed sites; 4-year-old forest and 6-year-old plantation presented similar index values, ca. 40 percent of the established standards, followed by 10-year-old forest and active pasture. The maintenance of spatial structure of habitat showed that 20-year-old forest, 10-year-old forest and the plantation held similar index values greater than 4-year-old and active pasture and were approximately halfway to reference conditions. These results show that functional assessment can be a useful technique for restorative programs in the tropics.
Keywords: restoration, functional assessment; Costa Rica; tropical wet forest; hydrogeomorphic functional assessment; tropical hydrology; forest structure; landuse changes; secondary tropical forest; pastures.
Author’s Name: Maria Cristina Penuela
Master of Science degree: August 2001
Major Professor: Dr. Allan P. Drew
An analysis of the Natural Resources Management System was carried out for the ejido X-Kanha, found in the northern part of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve in Campeche, Mexico. Through field research using Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), the activities carried out by different user groups were identified. Gender roles as well as age roles were analyzed. Results show that each family depends upon the diversification of productive activities in order to meet economic needs. However, some families are able to benefit more than others, having more opportunities and gaining higher economic status. Diversification of activities is carried out in both space and time, making use of different ecosystems during varied seasons throughout the year. Women’s activities correspond to housekeeping and house administration, they take care of homegardens, and are responsible for water collection and wood gathering. Men carry out the activities of working in the milpa, cattle raising, honey production, chicle collection, and wood felling.
A series of PRA activities carried out with the people of X-Kanha, led to the idenfication of limitations to more optimal uses of natural resources. The list of limitations and associated alternatives are used to provide a guideline to aid the efforts of NGO’s and other organizations interested in the conservation of natural resources, and in the well-being of the local population. The guideline identifies internal factors, which are primarily technological and organizational in nature, and external factors, which are related to markets and policy.
Author’s Name: Luciana Porter Bolland
Master of Science degree: January 1996
Major Professor: Dr. Allan P. Drew
Ecuador, a country with one of the highest biodiversities in the world, is passing through serious problems of forest loss. Skewed land tenure systems and authorized oil exploitation has altered the forest ecosystem in the eastern part of the country. Conditions of tenure institutions in the granting of titles to land have accelerated deforestation because there must be clear evidence that land is being cultivated. Moreover, oil deposits found in large areas of forests within this region and their further exploitation contribute to forest degradation. Both land tenure and oil exploitation led to construction of roads in forested areas. This, attracted either spontaneous or directed colonists that clear large tracts of forests in order to settle. Government and non-governmental organizations, aware of the situation, are making efforts to reduce forest loss, but without any favorable results because deforestation in Ecuador is due to structural factors that are deeply rooted.
Author’s Name: Ligia Elena Quintana Medina
Master of Science degree: October 1994
Major Professor: Dr. Hugh O. Canham
This study examines practices of Joint Forest Management (JFM) in eleven villages of Rajpipla forests in Gujarat State of western India. Despite a large variation in accomplishment among different villages, the results of JFM are encouraging. JFM has yielded both material and social benefits. Although many JFM forests did not improve, some forests are yielding more fodder, firewood, timber and a few non-timber forest products. Residents of successful JFM villages are satisfied with timber availability, but JFM lacks policy directives to guide local household uses of timber. Consequently, everyone, including forest officials, overlooks illegal forest use for reasonable household needs. Other useful benefits include democratic participation and conservation consciousness.
The JFM program visualizes an integrated resource management approach for forest and village development, but all JFM committees are preoccupied with forest protection and neglect the micro-planning process. This focus weakens sustainability of the program. Labor contribution for forest patrolling is the most common investment in forest management by villagers, but only two villages are sustaining forest patrolling. Both follow relatively formal and structured patrolling schedules. JFM committees also display variations in their propensity to regulate forest access. Patterns of forest-based conflicts indicate that exemplary deterrence, such as physical assaults and small cash fines, are commonly applied in cases of occasional violations of access rules. However, JFM committees do not follow graduated sanctions or a well-defined penalty structure. Conflict avoidance and tolerance are dominant strategies for dealing with everyday friction and recurrent violations by neighboring and traditional users. None of the JFM committees in the study area had used negotiation or other non-violent means for resolving conflicts with their neighboring communities. JFM committees seldom interfere in forest use of members and non-members within their villages.
Villagers anticipate production of wood and fodder sufficiently high to justify investment of their labor and time, but they are unable to estimate the expected production. Consequently, villagers deal with this uncertainty by using models of right behavior in their decision-making process. A consensus building approach moderates elite control of decision making, which is predominantly an informal process.
Villagers support the co-management process and want the Forest Department to take the initiatives for planning. JFM illustrates a radical change in the management philosophy from custodial to an entrepreneurial approach. The dissertation proposes a matrix model of behaviors towards self and others and suggests that JFM should be a composite of right-based and interest-based models.
Author’s Name: Vinay Kumar Sinha
Doctor of Philosophy degree: March 1999
Major Professors: Drs.William R. Bentley and Allan P. Drew
The Dong Mun Forest Reserve in Northeast Thailand has had a tumultuous history. Opened to logging in the early 1960’s, the reserve was base to a leftist political group and gradually became home to migrants from all over the Northeastern region. With less than one fourth of the area still forested, Thai government agencies are now playing important roles in the establishment and control of forest reserve villages, while attempting to conserve and reforest remaining forested areas.
Two case study villages, Ban Nong Saeng, an older, officially established village, and Ban Sai Tong, a new community awaiting official status, have many dynamic and organized social groups. These social groups, both formal and informal, could play significant roles in establishing improved collaboration between local communities and the Thai government in improving forest resource management.
Author’s Name: Kathryn Ruth Stam
Master of Science degree: May 1993
Major Professor: Dr. Margaret Shannon
The Calakmul Model Forest is a development project of the International Model Forest Network (IMFN). The IMFN seeks to encourage sustainable development via integrated resource management. This thesis investigates the obstacles and constraints to reaching this broad goal and more particularly the more narrowly defined local goals of the Calakmul model forest and the communities of the model forest. These obstacles are biophysical, economic, and political in nature.
The thesis includes a discussion of the development of modern land tenure in Mexico. It also outlines the concept of sustainable forest management and how it relates to the Calakmul Model Forest. A biophysical and historical description of the region is included.
This thesis is based upon library research as well as on a two-month field investigation in the Calakmul Model Forest.
Author’s Name: Scott J. Stewart
Master of Science degree: December 1997
Major Professor: Dr. Norman A. Richards
Community forestry consists of two goals: the sustainable use of natural resources and the promotion of empowerment. Since community forestry’s inception in 1978, these two components have been sought after with varying success. Today, efforts continue towards actualizing these goals, and the Community Forestry Unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization serves as a leader in this area of international development. Through interviewing Community Forestry Unit members and examining community forestry related literature, a better understanding of this topic and its intended outcome is provided. Of particular interest is the concept of participation, which is often utilized simultaneously with the term community forestry. Examining past and present endeavors to achieve participation will help to clarify the concept and illuminate the steps necessary for its achievement. Many changes have occurred over time regarding participation: moving from implementation, to the gathering of sociological information, to empowerment and currently to multi-stake holder analysis. As participation is continually sought after, paradigms are shifting from being top-down to bottom-up. To achieve this reversal, power must also change hands and that topic is explored here, as well as the implications for all those involved in engaging community forestry activities.
Author’s Name: Cynthia Ellen Szymanski
Master of Science degree: August 1999
Major Professor: Dr. Allan P. Drew
The research investigated the effects of four different seed sources, two different seed sizes and two different methods of scarification on the germination and early growth of teak (Tectona grandis) seedlings. Although there were variations of response among the different seed sources, statistically, only time of germination differed significantly among the four seed sources. Differences in seed size caused different results (percent of germination, time of germination, length of root, length of top, mass of root and mass of top). Bigger seeds had a higher percentage of germination and a shorter period until germination. Further, bigger seeds produced bigger seedlings. These differences could result in more successful regeneration of new teak plantations. Scarified seed germinated better and resulted in larger seedlings. The rate of mortality of newly germinated seeds was more related to the differences in seed size than to any scarification treatments applied to the seed.
Author’s Name: Hendro Wibowo
Master of Science degree: May 1992
Major Professor: Dr. Ralph D. Nyland