1998 Spotlight on Graduate and
Undergraduate Research at ESF
ASSESSING NITRATE AND AMMONIUM LEACHING IN ORGANICALLY AMENDED SOILS. Hector G. Adegbidi and Russell D. Briggs.
NON-DESTRUCTIVE BIOMASS ESTIMATION OF SHORT ROTATION BIOENERGY CROPS USING ALLOMETRIC EQUATIONS: MODEL SELECTION AND EVALUATION FOR FIVE WILLOW CLONES AND ONE POPLAR CLONE. Benjamin D. Ballard, Steve V. Stehman, and Russell D. Briggs.
REGULATORY CLIMATE AND FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY COMPETITIVENESS: PERSPECTIVES FROM THE NORTHEAST. Megan Carroll, Valerie Luzadis, John Wagner, and Don Floyd.
GROWTH OF SAPLINGS FOLLOWING A SELECTION CUT IN CENTRAL NEW YORK NORTHERN HARDWOODS. Pablo J. Donoso, Ralph D. Nyland, Lianjung Zhang, and Mariano Durn.
A LONGITUDINAL ANALYSIS OF TREE VOLUME DATA FROM STEM-ANALYSIS MEASUREMENTS. Fasheng Li and Lianjun Zhang.
RIPARIAN ZONE FLOWPATH DYNAMICS IN A SMALL HEADWATER CATCHMENT. Brian L. McGlynn, Jeffrey J. McDonnell, James B. Shanley, and Carol Kendall.
THE EFFECT ON SOIL pH AND BASE CATION STATUS OF SAMPLE STORAGE AND PROCESSING. WHY DO WE CARE? David McMillan and Ruth Yanai.
SCREENING WILLOW AND POPLAR BIOMASS PRODUCTION CLONES FOR INSECT RESISTANCE. Erik E. Nordman, Daniel J. Robison, and Lawrence P. Abrahamson.
MODELING LOCAL GOVERNMENT DECISION-MAKING IN WATERSHED MANAGEMENT. Timothy Schaeffer and Valerie Luzadis.
FIRST YEAR GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF WILLOW AND POPLAR BIOENERGY CROPS AS RELATED TO PHOTOSYNTHETIC CHARACTERSTICS. Pradeep J. Tharakan, Lawrence P. Abrahamson, Daniel J. Robison and Jud G. Isebrands.
RESULTS OF A SPECIES SELECTION TRIAL ON THE JOS PLATEAU, NIGERIA. Timothy Volk, Andrew Kidd, Philip Godwill, and Lawrence Abrahamson.
INTEGRATION OF REMOTE SENSING, GIS AND ON-SITE PHOTOGRAPHY FOR MODELING URBAN INFLUENCES ON SUMMER MICROCLIMATE. Yingjie Wang, Gordon M. Heisler, and Lee. P. Herrington.
ASSESSING NITRATE AND AMMONIUM LEACHING IN ORGANICALLY AMENDED SOILS. Hector G. Adegbidi and Russell D. Briggs, Faculty of Forestry, 342 Illick Hall, SUNY-College of Environmental Science and Forestry.
Wood biomass of willow clones (Salix spp.) grown in short-rotation intensive cultural systems (SRIC) has potential as source of renewable energy. The achievement of high biomass yield requires that adequate quantities of nutrient be supplied to plants. The use of biosolids and other waste products, as soil amendments in willow bioenergy plantations, have potential as inexpensive source of nutrients while it also providing for a safe disposal of the waste products. A greenhouse experiment was conducted at Lafayette Road Station to assess available nitrate and ammonium in soils amended with various waste products. Soil, in pots, was top-dressed with New York City sludge cake, Syracuse sludge cake, sludge compost, poultry manure compost and lime-stabilized sludge, each at a rate of 2.5 cm thick layer of material. Ammonium nitrate fertilizer and a slow-release nitrogen fertilizer were also applied at 200 kg N/ha. Anion and cation exchange resins were used as sinks for ammonium and nitrate leaching through columns of the organically amended and fertilized soil. The mass decrease of the applied materials was also recorded. After five months of incubation the treatments of New York City sludge, Syracuse sludge, sludge compost and poultry manure compost have lost respectively 25, 52, 27 and 47% of their initially applied masses. Nitrogen leaching as nitrate was variable and ranged from 56 to 110 kg N/ha. Nitrogen leaching as ammonium was negligible, ranging from 0.4 to 1.5 kg/ ha. Nitrogen collected by the ion-exchange resin columns suggested that the applied rates of sludge and compost materials could supply as much N for plants as mineral N fertilizers at a rate of 200 kg N/ha.
NON-DESTRUCTIVE BIOMASS ESTIMATION OF SHORT ROTATION BIOENERGY CROPS USING ALLOMETRIC EQUATIONS: MODEL SELECTION AND EVALUATION FOR FIVE WILLOW CLONES AND ONE POPLAR CLONE. Benjamin D. Ballard, Faculty of Forestry, 343 Illick Hall, SUNY-College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY, 13210. (Major Professors: Steve V. Stehman and Russell D. Briggs.)
Current research at the SUNY College of Environmental
Science and Forestry (ESF), in a coordinated effort with other Salix Consortium members,
is aimed at establishing an operational level of willow biomass production on a regional
level to supply wood for co-firing with coal at power plants in the region. At an
operational level, willow plantations will be harvested, chipped and transported to power
facilities. Chips will have to be delivered on an as needed basis because of the limited
amount of storage space at the plants. In order to ensure a steady supply of willow
biomass to the plant, estimates of biomass production before the time of harvest will be
necessary. Landowners will likely find estimation of biomass useful for decision-making.
For example, rotations are typically three years, but could be extended to four or even
five years if the amount of standing biomass does not make harvesting profitable. In
addition, current research often requires estimation of aboveground biomass prior to
harvesting. At the time of harvest, biomass can simply be weighed, but obtaining estimates
prior to that time requires the use of an alternate non-destructive estimation technique.
The use of regression equations is a reasonable non-destrucive estimation approach,
because there is a strong allometric relationship between stem diameter and dry stem
REGULATORY CLIMATE AND FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY COMPETITIVENESS: PERSPECTIVES FROM THE NORTHEAST. Megan Carroll, Valerie Luzadis, John Wagner, and Don Floyd, Faculty of Forestry, Bray Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY.
In recent years, New Yorks regulatory climate has
been cited as a critical factor hindering the competitiveness of its forest products
industry (FPI) relative to other states in the Northeast region (ESFPA 1995, Canham 1995,
Canham and Smith 1994). Despite estimates that New Yorks forest resources could
support an expanding FPI, such an expansion is inhibited by the perception that New York
is a difficult state in which to operate (Canham and Stegemann 1989). FPI representatives
throughout the Northeast share similar concerns that stringent state regulatory climates
threaten the competitiveness of the industry and jeopardize the sustainability of forest
resources (Northern Forest Lands Council 1994). Unfortunately, little in the way of
rigorous comparative research is available to support or negate these assertions.
GROWTH OF SAPLINGS FOLLOWING A SELECTION CUT IN CENTRAL NEW YORK NORTHERN HARDWOODS. Pablo J. Donoso, Ralph D. Nyland, Lianjung Zhang, and Mariano Durn, Faculty of Forestry, Marshall Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.
An assessment of height growth was conducted in a 23-acre northern hardwood selection stand cut to a residual density of 73 ft2/ac. Twenty four years later, during the second cutting cycle of the stand (the first lasted 19 years), 20 1-2 in. sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and 20 beech (Fagus grandifolia) saplings were randomly selected, cut, and subjected to stem analysis to determine height growth and time to reach different diameters and heights. Both species where pooled after conducting a dummy variable analysis. The saplings ranged from 26 to 52 years of age. They were classified according to the proportion of their lives under managed conditions, e.g. more than 80% (young trees), 67-80% (intermediate trees), and <67% (old trees). Five 5-yr. periods were analyzed, one representing the period before the cut (1968-1973), and the other four periods afterward. Trees of the different categories were compared for time to reach 1 in. in dbh. Young trees reached 1 in. in dbh almost one decade sooner than old trees (25,7 vs. 33.8 yrs.), and were not significantly different in height when reached 1 in. dbh. Growth of saplings for the second half of the cutting cycle did not differ significantly from these in the unmanaged stand (2.4 ft.), but differed from the growth during the first 10 years after cutting (2.85 ft.). Young and intermediate trees always grew more than old trees, but especially during the first 10 years after cutting (6.1 vs. 4.9 ft for the 10 years), and 20-25% more in height during the entire 19 year cutting cycle. For a shorter cutting cycle (10-15 years), significant decreases in height growth would not occur as stand density increases. Matching of the residual density and the cutting cycle is of importance as reflected in maintaining good rates of height growth among young age classes in an uneven-aged stand.
THE ROLE OF THE MANAGER'S EMOTION IN ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION-MAKING: APPLICATION OF FAMILY SYSTEMS THEORY TO THE MANAGER'S DECISION MAKING PROCESS IN THE FOREST SERVICE. Joan Kennedy, Faculty of Forestry, 320 Bray Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, New York 13210, Professor Don Floyd.
Family Systems Theory (FST) is used to explain the influence one's emotions have on natural resource decision making processes. The manager's decision making process is defined as person to person interactions made up of explicit and implicit messages. Implicit messages are full of emotional content, and not paid attention to in natural resource decision making. FST is an approach for looking at person to person interactions, of which emotion is an influential component. The context of this qualitative study is the Forest Service. Data are drawn from taped interviews, management meetings, public hearings, and workshops, written documents, policies and regulations. Situations of conflict are selected as illustrations of decision-making offering potential to study the influence of the manager's emotions on decision-making using FST.
A LONGITUDINAL ANALYSIS OF TREE VOLUME DATA FROM STEM-ANALYSIS MEASUREMENTS. Fasheng Li and Lianjun Zhang, Faculty of Forestry, 320 Bray Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.
Longitudinal data or repeated measurements over time refer to data sets with multiple measures of a response variable on the same experimental unit or subject over time (e.g., permanent-plot remeasurements and stem-analysis data). Two measurements taken at adjacent time points are more likely correlated than two measurements taken several time points apart. Misspecification of covariance structure for temporally correlated data will produce biased standard error estimators, consequently, affecting the hypothesis tests, and confidence and prediction intervals of the model and its coefficients. This project applied mixed-effects models to analyze Hondo spruce (Picea jezoensis Carr.) tree volume data from stem-analysis measurements collected in northeastern China. A repeated measures model and a random coefficients model were used to relate the logarithm of tree volume to the logarithm of tree diameter and total height. Various covariance structures were utilized to model the within-subject correlations. The Likelihood Ratio Test (LRT) showed that all covariance structures used were highly significant, indicating a significant gain in model fitting over incorrectly using Ordinary Least-Squares (OLS). Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) revealed that the power spatial covariance structure was the best for the repeated measures model, and the completely general (unstructured) covariance structure was the best for the random coefficients model. These two covariance structures increased AIC up to 51% and 58%, respectively, compared to the OLS model. The regression coefficients and their standard errors in parentheses for the OLS model and the two mixed-effects models are:
Model 1. Fixed-Effects Model using OLS:
Model 2. Mixed-Effects Model - Repeated Measures with power spatial covariance
Model 3. Mixed-Effects Model - Random Coefficients with unstructured covariance matrix:
RIPARIAN ZONE FLOWPATH DYNAMICS IN A SMALL HEADWATER CATCHMENT. Brian L. McGlynn, Faculty of Forestry, 208 Marshall Hall, Jeffrey J. McDonnell, Faculty of Forestry, 207 Marshall Hall, James B. Shanley, USGS, Montpelier VT, and Carol Kendall, USGS Menlo Park, Ca.
The hydrology of the near-stream riparian zone is poorly understood. We examined the spatial and temporal aspects of riparian flowpath convergence during snowmelt in a headwater catchment within the Sleepers River watershed in northern Vermont. A transect of 15 piezometers along a flowpath were sampled for Ca, Si, DOC, other major cations, and d18O. Daily piezometric head values reflected variations in the stream hydrograph induced by melt and rainfall. The riparian zone exhibited strong upward discharge gradients. An impeding layer was identified between the till and surficial organic soil. Soil water solute concentrations increased toward the stream throughout the melt. Ca concentrations increased with depth and DOC concentrations decreased with depth. The concentrations of Ca in all piezometers were lower during active snowmelt than during post-melt low flow. Ca data suggest snowmelt infiltration to depth, however, only upslope piezometers exhibited snowmelt infiltration and consequent low d18O values, while d18O values varied less than 0.5 permil in the deep near stream piezometers throughout the study period. Ca and d18O values in upslope piezometers during low streamflow were comparable to Ca and d18O in near stream piezometers during high streamflow. The upslope soil water Ca and d18O may explain the deep near-stream Ca dilution and consistent d18O composition. The temporal pattern in Ca and d18O suggest that upslope soil water moves to the stream via a lateral displacement mechanism that is augmented by pronounced layering in the subsurface. Snowmelt thus initiates the flux of older stored low Ca soil water to depth in the near stream zone. Our work suggests that combined use of chemical and isotopic tracers and hydrometric techniques is vital for the resolution of complex flowpaths in the near-stream zone.
THE EFFECT ON SOIL pH AND BASE CATION STATUS OF SAMPLE STORAGE AND PROCESSING. WHY DO WE CARE? David McMillan, Faculty of Forestry, 342 Illick Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, New York 13210 (Major Professor: Ruth Yanai).
The measurement of long-term changes in soil pH and base
cations offers us an opportunity to assess the impacts of anthropogenic stresses on
forested ecosystems. Long-term changes in soil pH may be subtle and difficult to detect
given inherently variable soil conditions and the strong buffering capacity of most forest
soils. However, these changes may be biologically very significant due to the logarithmic
increases in hydrogen ion concentrations indicated by small changes in pH. For this
reason, it is important to be able to detect small changes in soil pH. Long-term changes
in base cation status may reflect the impacts of acid rain on forest ecosystems. While
these changes are not always as subtle as soil pH, any change introduced through storage
and processing may obfuscate environmental changes.
SCREENING WILLOW AND POPLAR BIOMASS PRODUCTION CLONES FOR INSECT RESISTANCE. Erik E. Nordman, Daniel J. Robison, and Lawrence P. Abrahamson, 211 Marshall Hall SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY (315) 470-6775, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Wood biomass from trees is a potentially useful source of
fuel. Whether co-fired with coal or processed into a gas, burning wood fuels emits less
sulfur emissions than fossil fuels and is a renewable resource. There are many different
willow and poplar clones with utility for biomass production. Damage by herbivorous
insects can significantly reduce production of biomass. In the field, these plants will be
exposed to multiple pest complexes. It is helpful to understand the resistance and
susceptibility of clones to probable pests before making planting decisions and in support
of tree improvement efforts.
MODELING LOCAL GOVERNMENT DECISION-MAKING IN WATERSHED MANAGEMENT. Timothy Schaeffer, Graduate Program in Environmental Science, and Valerie Luzadis, Faculty of Forestry, 320 Bray Hall, SUNY-College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.
Many factors influence the decisions made by local
government officials in rural areas. These include the types of decision-making strategies
employed by the officials, the contexts in which they are forced to act, the limitations
placed upon them by the nature of governmental structures, their individual
characteristics, and the sources upon which they rely for information. The cumulative
effects of these factors will be expressed in the form of a model of local government
decision-making. This poster presents and explains the components of the model as an
FIRST YEAR GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF WILLOW AND POPLAR BIOENERGY CROPS AS RELATED TO PHOTOSYNTHETIC CHARACTERSTICS. Pradeep J. Tharakan1, Lawrence P. Abrahamson1, Daniel J. Robison2 and Jud G. Isebrands3, 1Faculty of Forestry, 340 Illick Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Sciences and Forestry, Syracuse, NY, 2Department of Forestry, North Carolina State University. Raleigh , NC, 3United States Forest Service. North Central Forest Experiment Station, North Central Forest Experiment Station, Rhinelander, WI.
Biomass energy is being considered in several countries as an alternative energy source for reducing dependence on fossil fuels and achieving greater energy independence. Economic analyses have shown that increasing yields of these plantations is one of the most important factors that would ensure commercial viability. In order to achieve this objective, an understanding of the eco-physiological characteristics and processes that influence and thereby predict productivity is essential. For example, earlier studies have proved that a linear relationship exists between leaf area index and dry matter production for hybrid poplar and willow. In 1997, a genetic selection trial of forty willow and poplar clones was established by SUNY-ESF1in central New York. Simultaneously a collaborative study was set up at the USFS North Central Forest Experiment Station, Rhinelander, WI2. Periodic morphological measurements of leaf area and biomass partitioning were used to monitor growth and development of ten clones with contrasting morphology and phenology. After the onset of dormancy in the fall, final growth and biomass yield values were obtained for all the forty clones. At the end of the first growing season, mean survival percentages for the clones were 87.14 percent in New York and 97 percent in Wisconsin. Statistically significant differences were found between clones, both in the case of individual tree characteristics (height and diameter growth), stand productivity (leaf area, biomass production) and biomass partitioning. In New York, the maximum leaf area per plant ranged from 0.12m2 to 0.53m2 for willow clones Pur12, S365, and 1.2 m2 in the case of the poplar clone NM6. This poster reports on the preliminary findings at the end of the first growing season.
RESULTS OF A SPECIES SELECTION TRIAL ON THE JOS PLATEAU, NIGERIA. Timothy Volk1, Andrew Kidd2, and Philip Godwill3, 1Faculty of Forestry, 133 Illick Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210 (Major Professor: Lawrence Abrahamson), 2 University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany, 3Plateau State Afforestation Program, Jos, Nigeria.
In the early 1900s open woodlands covered the Jos
Plateau, located in central Nigeria. The development of the tin industry, and its
associated population increases, resulted in extensive deforestation of the area during
the first half of the 1900s. Refforestation efforts initiated in the late 1940s had
limited success. The Plateau State Afforestation Projects (PTPU) was established in
1987 with the goal of reducing erosion and preventing further soil degradation by raising
and distributing tree seedlings. The programs efforts have focused primarily on Eucalyptus
camaldulensis seedlings. The current study assessed the survival and growth of
38 different local and exotic species and provenenaces of trees on three marginal sites --
typical of those available for tree planting.
INTEGRATION OF REMOTE SENSING, GIS AND ON-SITE PHOTOGRAPHY FOR MODELING URBAN INFLUENCES ON SUMMER MICROCLIMATE. Yingjie Wang and Gordon M. Heisler, Faculty of Forestry, USDA Forest Service, 5 Moon library, SUNY-ESF, Syracuse, NY 13210. (Major professor: Dr. Lee. P. Herrington).
The objective of the study was to explore the possibility
of using semi-empirical analysis to arrive at algorithms to predict urban air temperatures
in below-canopy spaces. The wind and cloud conditions at the National Weather Service
meteorological station at the Atlanta airport were assumed to represent the general
synoptic weather conditions over the city during below-canopy air temperature measurements
in July 1996. The below-canopy measurements were made at three points: in a botanical
garden, a residential area, and a downtown location.
Page maintained by Russell Briggs.
Last modified July 19, 1999