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1999 Spotlight on Graduate and Undergraduate Research at ESF
Forestry Abstracts

 

Contents

FERTILIZATION OF SHORT-ROTATION WOODY CROP PLANTATIONS WITH SLOW-RELEASE NITROGEN. Benjamin D. Ballard and Russell D. Briggs.

EFFECTS OF ALTERNATIVE APPLICATION METHODS OF IBA ON IN VITRO ROOTING AND SHOOT-TIP NECROSIS OF AMERICAN CHESTNUT. Sharon Bickel and Dr. Charles Maynard.

RECREATIONAL USE OF INDUSTRIAL FOREST LANDS IN NEW YORK STATE. Sergio Capozzi, Rene Germain, and Chad Dawson.

ECONOMICALLY OPTIMAL ROTATION AGE DETERMINATION UNDER SUSTAINABLE FORESTRY. Lisa Casalmir, Craig Davis, John Wagner, and Lianjun Zhang.

ASSESSING INDUSTRY PERFORMANCE IN IMPLEMENTING THE TWELVE OBJECTIVES OF THE AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION'S SUSTAINABLE FORESTRY INITIATIVE PROGRAM. Stephen Harris and Rene Germain.

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF DIAMETER-LIMIT CUT STANDS IN THE SOUTHERN TIER AND CENTRAL NEW YORK. Chris Helmes, Chris Nowak, John Wagner, Hugh Canham, and Eddie Bevilacqua.

DEVELOPMENT OF POTTING MIXES FOR ACCLIMATIZATION OF AMERICAN CHESTNUT TISSUE CULTURE PLANTS. Seth LaPierre, Sharon Bickel, Dr. Charles Maynard.

MODELING TREE DBH AND HEIGHT DISTRIBUTIONS JOINTLY BY BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTIONS. Fasheng Li and Lianjun Zhang.

PEPTIDES FOR SIGNING ANTIMICROBIAL USE IN SELF-PROCESSING POLYPEPTIDES. Haiying Liang, Cathy M. Catranis, Charles A. Maynard and William A. Powell.

EVALUATION OF A ONE-DIMENSIONAL TEMPERATURE MODEL FOR A SNOW COVER AT HUNTINGTON FOREST. Adam B. Mazurkiewicz and Jeffrey J. McDonnell and Janet P. Hardy.

IN CONTROL OF AL: AN EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH TO DETERMINING AL SOLUBILITY. David McMillan and Hector Adegbidi.

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF FORESTRY BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN THE ADIRONDACK AND CATSKILL REGIONS OF NEW YORK STATE. Jamie L. Schuler and Russell D. Briggs.

COMPARISON OF SOIL P DETERMINED USING ANION EXCHANGE MEMBRANE AND TRUOG METHOD. Naoko Suzuki, Russell D. Briggs, and Donald H. Bickelhaupt.


Abstracts

FERTILIZATION OF SHORT-ROTATION WOODY CROP PLANTATIONS WITH SLOW-RELEASE NITROGEN. Benjamin D. Ballard and Russell D. Briggs, Faculty of Forestry, 322 Bray Hall, SUNY-College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

     The use of wood for energy production has received increased attention in recent decades as alternative sources of clean, renewable energy are being explored. Short-rotation woody crop plantations of fast-growing trees such as willow and poplar have the potential to meets some of these fuel needs.
     Three nitrogen fertilization rates, 100, 200, and 300 kg N/ha, and a control were used to evaluate the impact of nitrogen fertilization on second-year yields of five willow clones and one poplar clone in three plantations across New York State. Willow clone SV1 and poplar clone NM6 responded to fertilization by increasing yield and levels of foliar nitrogen, reaching yields as high as 20.3 and 21.6 o.d. tonnes per ha by the second year of the rotation, respectively. Response to fertilization differed by site, and tree biomass response to fertilization was a function of survival, weed competition, site and microsite variation, and their interactions. Future work should focus on these interactions.
     Fertilization with nitrogen will improve yields in many plantations and will contribute to the sustainability of the system by replacing nitrogen removed from harvesting of the crop.

 

EFFECTS OF ALTERNATIVE APPLICATION METHODS OF IBA ON IN VITRO ROOTING AND SHOOT-TIP NECROSIS OF AMERICAN CHESTNUT. Sharon Bickel and Dr. Charles Maynard, Faculty of Forestry, 217 Marshall Hall, SUNY-College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210

     American chestnut is a difficult species to root in vitro. Shoot-tip die-back is common during rooting. In order to improve the rooting and decrease the shoot-tip necrosis rates of somatic embryo derived American chestnut, several IBA (Indole 3-butyric acid) treatments were tested. Our standard procedure consists of splitting the basal end of the plantlet approximately 2-3 mm up the stem and dipping it into a 10 mM solution of filter sterilized IBA for one minute ('quick dip'). In this study we evaluated alternative treatments in which we added the IBA in various concentrations into an agar-based medium. We also evaluated different light and dark treatments. Plantlets were basally split and placed into medium containing 3, 25 or 50 mg/L of IBA for differing lengths of time. The 3 mg/L treatment was divided into 16 hours of light and 8 hours of darkness, 24 hours of darkness, and three and five days of light with a 16 hour photoperiod. The 25 and 50 mg/L treatments received 16 hours of light and 8 hours of darkness. Fifteen shoots of each of three clones were used for each treatment. Rooting and shoot-tip necrosis rates differed among clones and IBA treatments. The Pond 1-1 clone performed the best with the control 'quick dip' method (60% rooted with healthy shoot-tips). The Pond 1-2 clone excelled in the 25 mg/L IBA and a 16 hour photoperiod with 60% rooted with a healthy shoot-tip compared to the 33% control for this clone. The Pond 2 clone performed similarly to the control in the 25 and 50 mg/L treatments (30% rooting in all three treatments).

 

RECREATIONAL USE OF INDUSTRIAL FOREST LANDS IN NEW YORK STATE. Sergio Capozzi, Rene Germain, and Chad Dawson, Faculty of Forestry (Recreation and Tourism) SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, 211 Marshall Hall, 1 Forestry Drive, Syracuse, NY 13210-2787

     As part of New York’s Sustainable Forestry Initiative, a survey of the companies and individuals involved in forest products, forest management, and primary wood processing was conducted in 1998 to establish a baseline about their operations in the state. Part of that study was to measure the use of industrial forest lands for recreational activities. Of the 396 companies and individuals sent a mail survey, 237 complete and useable surveys were returned (response rate of 45%). Nearly all of the forest industry’s 1.1 million acres are used for recreation and open space in the state. Survey respondents indicated that forest recreation is managed through private recreation leases on approximately 800,000 acres and an estimated 180,000 acres of forest lands are open to the public for recreational activities. The five most often reported recreational activities on industrial forest lands are hunting, snowmobiling, hiking, fishing, and observing wildlife. Forest managers are seeking ways to better manage their lands for recreation and aesthetics in addition to commercial forest products.

 

ECONOMICALLY OPTIMAL ROTATION AGE DETERMINATION UNDER SUSTAINABLE FORESTRY. Lisa Casalmir, Craig Davis, John Wagner, and Lianjun Zhang, Faculty of Forestry, 320 Bray Hall, SUNY-ESF College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse NY 13210

     The issues of sustainable development and use of renewable resources have been a topic raised recently both in the popular press and academic journals. In forestry, the issues of sustainability are important in implementing the relatively new paradigm of ecosystem management. Traditional approaches to determining the optimal financial management plan use positive discount rates that run counter to the concept of sustainability. This research proposes to develop an analytical model of sustainability for even-aged stands regenerated using clear cut and shelterwood treatments. The management plans resulting from this model should be more consistent with the concept of ecosystem management, then management plans generated through traditional approaches. We will test a hypothesis that the management plans resulting from the traditional financial approach are significantly different from the proposed approach.

 

ASSESSING INDUSTRY PERFORMANCE IN IMPLEMENTING THE TWELVE OBJECTIVES OF THE AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION’S SUSTAINABLE FORESTRY INITIATIVE PROGRAM. Stephen Harris, Rene Germain, Faculty of Forestry, 218 Marshall Hall.

     In response to public concern over the fate of the nation’s forest, the American Forest and Paper Association (AF&PA) - a forest product industry trade group - developed the Sustainable Forest Initiative (SFI) program. The SFI program outlines 12 objectives that industry believes comprise sustainable forest management. Due to the broadness of the objectives, it is unclear how AF&PA-companies are implementing the program. To date, no research has measured the program’s performance. This study will investigate whether companies have incorporated policies and performance measures to meet each objective. A mailed survey instrument will be used to measure the level of development of the SFI program through the use of a summated ratings scale. Several questions will be asked to measure the underlying concept of each objective with the overall goal of measuring industry-wide performance. This study will determine how companies implement the SFI program and change their forest practices on the ground.

 

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF DIAMETER-LIMIT CUT STANDS IN THE SOUTHERN TIER AND CENTRAL NEW YORK. Chris Helmes, Chris Nowak, John Wagner, Hugh Canham, and Eddie Bevilacqua, Faculty of Forestry, 211 Marshall Hall, SUNY-College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210

     New York State contains over 18 million acres of forest land with 70 percent managed by nonindustrial private land owners (NIPF). There are many reasons for owning forest land, including hunting and other forms of recreation. Timber harvesting on NIPF lands is often done for wood products and positive cash flow. New York’s forests are maturing for many commodity values, particularly those related to wood. As such, timber cutting will likely accelerate across the Empire State. Studies have shown that the majority of timber cutting on NIPF land is done without silviculture. Instead, cutting is done with various forms of high grading and diameter limits. These practices emphasize short-term profits, minimize attention to residual stand conditions, and compromise opportunities for sustainable production of many forest values and benefits. Often, diameter-limit cut stands contain only a few valuable residual trees: crop trees. These crop trees can produce sawtimber of high quality and value and may provide the only viable regeneration options for the next stand. The key question for this project is: "How many crop trees are needed per acre to economically justify management of the residual stand with silviculture?" We are using long-term data on silviculturally treated and diameter-limit cut stands from a manipulative field experiment in Allegheny hardwoods (S. Stout, U.S. Forest Service) and observational studies in northern hardwoods (R. Nyland, SUNY-ESF). Our plan is to construct a 20-yr time line of stand growth and value development, with or without silviculture. Time trajectories will provide a framework for a future series of simulation experiments (Year 2 of the project). Once we know how individual trees and stands develop with and without silviculture, we can construct a wide variety of residual stand conditions and assess the relationship between silvicultural investments and generation of value. Our goal is to develop guidelines to help landowners make informed decisions about using silviculture and restoring diameter-limit cut stands.

 

DEVELOPMENT OF POTTING MIXES FOR ACCLIMATIZATION OF AMERICAN CHESTNUT TISSUE CULTURE PLANTS. Seth LaPierre, Sharon Bickel, Dr. Charles Maynard, Faculty of Forestry, 217 Marshall Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210

     In this first stage of a two-stage experiment, several tests were conducted on various soils composed of combinations of peat, commercially available sand, vermiculite, and perlite. The objective was to determine a mixture with minimal organic content and characteristics ideal for chestnut growth to replace the current soil, a 3:1 mix of Promix and sand. The characteristics used to determine acceptability were pH, drainage qualities, texture and structure.
     The plants show symptoms of nutrient problems. The Promix is fertilized in unknown concentrations. Eliminating the Promix and minimizing organic content allows for better control of nutrient content through use of monitored fertilization.
     Tests of pH were conducted on each soil mix after: mixing, watering twice, and fertilizing with either modified Hoagland's nutrient solution or Miracid following the watering, mimicking the watering patterns used in care of the potted plants. The ideal pH range for field grown American chestnuts is 5.5-6.5. In tissue culture, the plants are grown in media pH 4.5. Original soil mixes looked to maintain the lower pH value to minimize stress involved in transplantation. Since success in the lower range has been marginal, the higher pH range is being examined in the new soils.
     Drainage qualities were tested by timing the flow of 200 mL of water through a settled sample in a 4 1/2" square plastic pot. Excess water was collected, quantified and qualities of any sediment were noted. Also measured was the loss of volume to compaction and sedimentation.
     Structure and texture were qualitatively examined by destructive sampling of soils after drainage tests and repeated waterings. Stratification of components, size of air spaces, and moisture content of the potting mixes through the profile were observed.
     Criteria for acceptance were a pH 5.5-6.5, time to drain of 1-1.5 minutes, a volume of 50-100 mL of water drained, minimal sedimentation, and less than 1 cm loss to compaction. A small degree of flexibility was allowed in meeting these. Three mixtures met the criteria and are being investigated further in stage two, testing with live material. These mixtures are 1:1:1 sand:peat:perlite, 2:1:1 peat:sand:perlite, and 2:1:1 peat:sand:vermiculite.

 

MODELING TREE DBH AND HEIGHT DISTRIBUTIONS JOINTLY BY BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTIONS. Fasheng Li, and Lianjun Zhang, Faculty of Forestry, 331 Bray Hall, SUNY-College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210

     Traditionally, in estimating or predicting the volume of a forest stand, the most common practice is to fit a theoretical distribution (e.g., Weibull) to diameter frequency data and then use an empirical height-diameter relationship (e.g., h = g(d)) to estimate the average height for each diameter class and hence the volume. Although this approach is satisfactory in many situations, it tends to ignore the natural relationship between tree diameter and height by treating them separately since tree heights can vary considerably for a given diameter. An alternative is to treat the distributions of tree height and diameter simultaneously by using bivariate distributions. Johnson’s SBB was the first and the only one found in forest literature used to fit joint distributions of tree diameter and height. In this study, a bivariate generalized lambda distribution (GLD-2) [1], is applied to describe the joint frequency distribution of tree diameter and height. It is found that this bivariate distribution is more flexible and successful in simulating 40 Douglas-fir plots in Idaho. Since there are intrinsic relationships between the parameters of this bivariate distribution and the first four moments of tree DBH and height, it is easy to construct sound models to predict these parameters from available stand variables. The predicting results of three independent plots indicate that the joint distribution of tree DBH and height can also be predicted very well.

     1. Beckwith, N.B., and Dudewicz, E.J.(1996) American J. of Mathematical and Management Sciences 16: 333-393.

 

PEPTIDES FOR SIGNING ANTIMICROBIAL USE IN SELF-PROCESSING POLYPEPTIDES. Haiying Liang, Cathy M. Catranis, Charles A. Maynard, and William A. Powell, Faculty of Forestry Biology, 329 Illick Hall, SUNY-College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

     Several cationic, antimicrobial peptides, 19-39 amino acids in length, were designed for use in self-processing proteins based on tobacco etch virus’ (TEV’s) NIa protease system. Each peptide was designed to incorporate the residual residues left after cleavage at a putative NIa protease recognition site, ELRYAQ/S, while maintaining the general magainin-like, ESF peptide form. The synthetic peptides’ antifungal activities were determined using in vitro bioassays with the plant-pathogenic fungi, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and Cryphonectria parasitica. In vitro hemolytic activities were determined using human red blood cells. The first peptide synthesized, ESF22A, had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2.8 ÁM for F. oxysporum, about 4 fold more active than (Ala8,13,18) magainin 2 and 11ÁM for C. parasitica, just slightly better than (Ala8,13,18) magainin 2. At 250ÁM, ESF22A showed about 70% of the hemolytic activity of a 0.1% triton X-100 control. By reducing the hydrophobicity in the analog ESF22B, the antimicrobial activity was maintained and the hemolytic activity was reduced almost four-fold. A larger peptide, ESF39A, was designed to incorporate the ESF22B design and included two NIa protease recognition sites flanking a nested turn sequence as a spacer for inclusion of other peptides or enzymes and a 6X His tail. This peptide was synthesized and tested in vitro. Its antimicrobial activity and hemolytic activity was similar to the ESF22B peptide both before and after digestion with TEV protease. This peptide is being used as the foundation for construction of a gene cassette encoding a putative self-processing peptide that incorporates the TEV protease in combination with several antimicrobial peptides.

 

EVALUATION OF A ONE-DIMENSIONAL TEMPERATURE MODEL FOR A SNOW COVER AT HUNTINGTON FOREST. Adam B. Mazurkiewicz and Jeffrey J. McDonnell, Faculty of Forestry, 208 Marshall Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210; Janet P. Hardy, US Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755.

     The physical controls on snowmelt in forested, heterogeneous terrain are poorly understood. We evaluated a one-dimensional model, SNTHERM89, and its ability to simulate snow energy balance and snowpack ablation. SNTHERM89 uses the basic meteorological inputs of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, incoming and outgoing shortwave radiation, and incoming longwave radiation. The model also requires initial snowpack characteristics such as layer thicknesses, densities, grain sizes, and temperature. We hypothesized that SNTHERM89 could simulate the individual components of the energy balance more accurately than calculations using routine meteorological data. We also tested the hypothesis that good point-scale estimates may not replicate ablation on a catchment wide basis. SNTHERM89 was applied to a five-day meteorological data set from March 1999, that was collected at an open site at the Arbutus Watershed, Huntington Wildlife Center. Meteorological measurements were made at a height of 1.5 meters above the snowpack. Shortwave radiation was measured using a LI-COR pyranometer and longwave radiation was estimated using Stefan-Boltzman's equation. A snow course was established in a mixed forest stand approximately 1.1 km away. The model was able to predict the snow energy balance with an R^2 efficiency value of 0.6057. Changes in snow water equivalent were modeled more accurately than expected (R^2 value of 0.5854). Our study provides an understanding of the complexity of snow energy balance calculations and is a formal test for SNTHERM89 simulation of snowpack metamorphism.

 

IN CONTROL OF AL: AN EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH TO DETERMINING AL SOLUBILITY. David McMillan and Hector Adegbidi, Faculty of Forestry, 342 Illick Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry.

     Research has shown that elevated levels of Al are toxic to fish and other aquatic organisms and, may result in reduced root growth in plants. Two models are curently proposed for the control of solution-phase Al: (i) equilibrium with Al(OH)3 and (ii) complexation by organic material. In this study, we experimentally manipulated the pH of a mineral soil (A1 horizon), a forest floor (Oa) and a sewage sludge substrate to investigate the role of the exchange process and organic complexation in controlling solution-phase Al. We found that solution-phase Al is controlled by both exchangeable Al and organically bound Al depending on the substrate considered. That control is strong and straightforward at pH value around 6. When the pH decreases from that value, the control becomes less obvious due to the involvement of some other factors and mechanisms to be investigated. Dissolved organic carbon appears to be inversely correlated with organically bound Al, possibly indicating Al control of DOC solubility.  

 

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF FORESTRY BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN THE ADIRONDACK AND CATSKILL REGIONS OF NEW YORK STATE. Jamie L. Schuler and Russell D. Briggs, Faculty of Forestry, 211 Marshall Hall, SUNY College Of Environmental Science & Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

     In recent decades, timber harvesting has come under great scrutiny due, in part, to its impacts to water quality and aquatic organisms. Increasing pressures have been placed on forest managers to implement best management practices (BMPs). Unlike most northeastern states, New York has not adopted specific BMP requirements. Our study attempts to show whether BMPs, required by other northeastern states, are sufficient in protecting surface waters from sedimentation in the Adirondack and Catskill regions of NY.
     Results show that BMPs applied in the Adirondack and Catskill regions are largely adequate in preventing sedimentation of surface waters. By contrast, failure to use BMPs often led to either direct or indirect impacts. Effectiveness was tested statistically using Chi-square tests or Fisher’s Exact Test (Ho: surface water protection is independent of BMP use). For the Adirondack and Catskill regions, failure to reject the null hypothesis at a = 0.10 occurred for only 2 of 28 and 5 of 33 BMPs, respectively.

 

COMPARISON OF SOIL P DETERMINED USING ANION EXCHANGE MEMBRANE AND TRUOG METHOD. Naoko Suzuki, Russell D. Briggs, and Donald H. Bickelhaupt, Faculty of Forestry, 350 Illick Hall, SUNY-College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY

     This study was conducted to determine the utility of Anion Exchange Membrane (AEM) technique for measuring available phosphate and to compare results to those obtained using the Truog method, a standard extraction procedure. Soil samples were collected from a willow bioenergy plantation, Tully, NY from each of 3 depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30 cm), 17 months following top-dressing with biosolids (lime-stabilized biosolid; poultry manure compost; untreated control). Following extractions, AEM-P and Truog-P were determined by spectrophotometer. In general P determined with both methods decreased with depth. Poultry manure compost had the highest P, and with lime-stabilized biosolid had the lowest. The relationship between AEM-P and Truog-P differed by soil amendment. These results indicate that the AEM method is useful for measuring available soil P.


Page maintained by Russell Briggs.
Last modified July 19, 1999


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