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2000 Spotlight on Graduate and Undergraduate Research at ESF
Environmental Resource and Forest Engineering Abstracts

 

Contents

CONSTRUCTING AN AUTOMATIC, ACCURATE STATION VISIBILITY DIAGRAM FOR GPS USING DIGITAL PHOTOHGRAMMETRY. Russ Aicher, Amy Becker, Trevis Gogliotti, Geoffrey Graeff, Sean Huckins, Karen Kwasnowski, Soojeong Myeong, Tyrone Rodriguez, Cheng Zhu, and Robert Brock.

POTENTIAL FOR BRIDGE SCOUR, NYS ROUTE 26 BRIDGE OVER MEAD BROOK, CORTLAND COUNTY, NY. David Andros, Val Murakami, Jon Sharrer and James M. Hassett.

EXAMINING THE USE OF SPATIAL FREQUENCY ANALYSIS FOR FOREST CANOPY CLASSIFICATION. Jennifer Barber and Dr. Paul Hopkins.

A GROUNDWATER MODEL STUDY OF A GALLEY SYSTEM IN PUTNAM COUNTY, NEW YORK. Kelly Bazukiewicz, Donald Siegel and James Hassett.

USE OF A GROUNDWATER FLOW MODEL TO VISUALIZE FLOW PATHS AT A GALLEY SITE IN PUTNAM COUNTY, NY. Kelley Beach, Donald Siegel and James Hassett.

BRIDGE SCOUR ANALYSIS: ROUTE 11 BRIDGE OVER TROUT CREEK, CORTLAND, NY. Anthony Browne, Wendy Weeks and James Hassett.

COMPARISON OF MULTI-ALTITUDE DIGITAL IMAGES. Shan Chen, Michael J. Duggin.

LINKS BETWEEN HYDROLOGY, TOPOGRAPHY, AND CHEMISTRY IN SHALLOW SUBSURFACE STORMWATER. Ron Ferris, John Camp, and Chuck Kroll.

A CONCEPTUAL MODEL TO ILLUSTRATE CONSEQUENCES OF WATERLEVEL MANAGEMENT DECISIONS ON THE CENTRAL SECTION OF THE NYS BARGE CANAL SYSTEM. Andrew Gerardi, Charles Kroll and James Hassett.

A FLOW MODEL OF THE ERIE CANAL SYSTEM. Dan Gilbert, James Hassett and Charles Kroll.

HYDRAULIC REDESIGN OF AN URBAN CHANNEL: MEADOWBROOK, SYRACUSE, NY. Matthew Lehrer, Vincent Barber and James M. Hassett, Faculty of Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering, 312 Bray Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

ENGINEERING ANALYSIS TO DESIGN A PROCESS TO REMOVE AMMONIA FROM DAIRY SLURRY. Matthew Lehrer and Douglas Daley, Faculty of Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering, 312 Bray Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

URBAN COVER CLASSIFICATION USING HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION IMAGERY. Soojeong Myeong, Paul Hopkins, Faculty of Environmental and Resource Engineering. 312 Bray Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

SITE SELECTION TO MONITOR DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT PRECURSORS TO A DRINKING WATER RESERVOIR SYSTEM. Jill Piskorz, Paul Heisig and James M. Hassett. Faculty of Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering, 312 Bray Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

AN ONGOING EXPERIMENT OF CAPILLARY FRINGE DYNAMICS IN STREAMFLOW GENERATION. Karen Ann Sinko and Chuck Kroll, Faculty of Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering, 312 Bray Hall, SUNY ESF, Syracuse, NY, 13210.

A SAMPLING PLAN TO DETERMINE COLOR SOURCES OF A DRINKING WATER RESERVOIR SYSTEM. Julie Tasillo1 and Dr. James Hassett2, 1Graduate Student in Environmental Science, and 2Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

USE OF GEOSTATISTICAL ALGORITHMS TO MODEL UNCERTAINTY IN SOIL LEAD CONCENTRATIONS AT SKEET AND TRAP RANGES. William Thayer and James M. Hassett, Faculty of Environmental and Forest Engineering, Bray Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

NASA AFFILIATED RESEARCH CENTER - SUNY COLLEGE OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND FORESTRY. Kerry Van Siclen, Lindi Quackenbush and Dr. Paul Hopkins, Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering, 312 Bray Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

WATERSHED MANAGEMENT: ESTABLISHING CRITERIA TO CHOOSE APPROPRIATE MODEL(S) TO SATISFY MULTIPLE OBJECTIVES. Jun Wang1, Jeffrey McDonnell2 and James M. Hassett1 Faculty of Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering1, 312 Bray Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY and Department of Forest Engineering2, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.

FOREST CLASSIFICATION USING COHERENCE AND BACKSCATTER DATA FROM SATELLITE SAR IMAGERY. Cheng Zhu, Soojeong Myeong, Paul F. Hopkins, 312 Bray Hall, Department of Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering,, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

A PLAN FOR A MULTI-INVESTIGATOR STUDY OF THE NEW YORK CITY DRINKING WATER SUPPLY. Stephanie A. Zumbuhl and James M. Hassett, Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering, 312 Bray Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210. 


Abstracts

CONSTRUCTING AN AUTOMATIC, ACCURATE  STATION VISIBILITY DIAGRAM FOR GPS USING DIGITAL PHOTOHGRAMMETRY.  Russ Aicher, Amy Becker, Trevis Gogliotti, Geoffrey Graeff, Sean Huckins, Karen Kwasnowski, Soojeong Myeong, Tyrone Rodriguez, Cheng Zhu, and Robert Brock, Faculty of Environmental and Resource Engineering. 312 Bray Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

 An automatic and accurate technique to construct a station visibility diagram was developed. A station visibility diagram shows azimuth and vertical angles of obstructions surrounding a GPS survey location, which is used to create masking diagrams to plan optimal times for GPS satellite reception. GPS software, such as Quickplan, uses the station visibility diagram in conjunction with satellite configuration information to determine acceptable times for collection GPS data.

The automatic design developed here can replace handheld compass and Abney level which is time consuming and not very accurate in constructing the diagram. The design of instrument consists of a double rotating U-shaped device, an adjustable wooden leg surveying tripod, a combination compass and divisions which indicate angle on mount, and a Bull’s eye bubble on camera mount. The inner U rotates in a vertical plane and outer U rotates in a horizontal plane. The operator records the photo number, azimuth, and vertical angle in a field notebook. 

The data reduction determines the horizontal and vertical angles from images taken with a digital camera. Two methods were developed to determine horizontal and vertical angles. One was written in FORTRAN using oblique terrestrial photo equations (Wolf 1983), the other is written in MathCad using an Affine Transformation. The results show that Affine Transformation method has an error which ranges from –0.048 to 2.21 degrees in the horizontal direction and –0.00078 to 3.72 degrees in vertical direction. The oblique terrestrial photo equations have errors ranging from 2.75 degrees to 15.96 degrees in horizontal direction and errors ranging from–2.83 to –6.15 degrees in the vertical direction.

POTENTIAL FOR BRIDGE SCOUR, NYS ROUTE 26 BRIDGE OVER MEAD BROOK, CORTLAND COUNTY, NY. David Andros, Val Murakami, Jon Sharrer and James M. Hassett. Faculty of Environmental and Resource Engineering, 312 Bray Hall, State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

 The Schoharie Creek Bridge failure in 1987 prompted the development of numerous methods for evaluating potential scour at bridge foundations. We examined the potential for bridge scour at a site in Cortland County. Scour hazard was investigated using the Integrated Approach and the HEC-RAS 2.2 engineering software. The Integrated Approach is based on empirical relations, termed K-factors. These account for the effects on scour depth of flow, foundation size, flow intensity sediment characteristics, foundation type, shape, alignment, and approach channel geometry. HEC-RAS 2.2 is a software package that includes bridge scour analysis capabilities. A hydraulic model of the river reach containing the bridge is used for calculations of scour. The two methods are detailed below with a comparison of results. In general, the bridge site is at moderate risk with respect to scour hazard. Design alternatives to redeuce the scour hazard are presented.

 

EXAMINING THE USE OF SPATIAL FREQUENCY ANALYSIS FOR FOREST CANOPY CLASSIFICATION. Jennifer Barber and Dr. Paul Hopkins, Faculty of Environmental Resource and Forest Engineering, 312 Bray Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

It is important to the forestry industry to discriminate quickly and reliably between forest types for both resource management and for commercial purposes. Fourier transforms provide a technique to evaluate the frequencies present in a signal. By using a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform the spatial frequencies present within a remotely sensed image may be extracted and compared. This poster presents the steps involved in showing the spatial frequency differences between imagery of broad-leaf and needle-leaf canopy. The study area is Huntington Forest in the Adirondack Park. The orthorectified infrared digital aerial imagery is provided by Emerge and has one-meter nominal ground resolution. Fourier spectra of 64 by 64 pixel sample regions will be described and analyzed for their ability to distinguish the two forest types.

 

A GROUNDWATER MODEL STUDY OF A GALLEY SYSTEM IN PUTNAM COUNTY, NEW YORK. Kelly Bazukiewicz, Donald Siegel and James Hassett, Faculty of Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering, 312 Bray Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the New York City Department of Environmental Protection (NYCDEP), the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH), and the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY ESF) have undertaken a study of galley systems. The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of galley systems in treating domestic wastewater as compared to conventional absorption trench systems in a surface water supply watershed. Galley systems are essentially leaching chamber systems and the layout of the systems is similar to conventional systems ASTM monitoring wells were installed at four sites in Putnam County, New York. Each site has three downgradient wells and at least one upgradient well. Samples have been taken bi-weekly from June 1998 to June 1999 and were analyzed for several water quality parameters. A model of one site has been constructed using the Groundwater Modeling System software and the FEMWATER modeling program interface. FEMWATER is a three-dimensional finite element model that predicts density dependent flow and transport in variably saturated media. The model was constructed using only the inflow from the study galley, which was only one-half of one of three galleys at the site. It was calibrated using the heads obtained form the monitoring wells. Simulations were run to see the effects on the model of changing the influx of the galley to its full design flow, doubling the area of the influx, and simulating the same input as a conventional trench system. Wet and dry conditions were also modeled. Results showed the effect of the induced groundwater mounding from the system on the groundwater flow patterns. Also seen was how the doubled area caused less flooding and a flattening out of the groundwater mound.

 

USE OF A GROUNDWATER FLOW MODEL TO VISUALIZE FLOW PATHS AT A GALLEY SITE IN PUTNAM COUNTY, NY. Kelley Beach, Donald Siegel and James Hassett, Faculty of Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering, 312 Bray Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

A galley site located in Putnam County, New York, is currently under study by SUNY-ESF investigators to examine the localized effects associated with discharging septic tank effluent into the subsurface of a drinking water supply watershed. The purpose of this study is to assess the hydrologic influence the system exerts on groundwater processes such as groundwater mounding and the resulting flow distributions and patterns. Galleys, also known as leaching chambers, are comparable to long, shallow seepage pits and are often installed rather than conventional drain fields. Twelve water table wells were installed along the perimeter of the galley system and two were placed up-gradient to monitor background conditions. The wells were equipped with capacitance rods to monitor water table elevations and were analyzed for water quality characteristics including biological oxygen demand (BOD5), ammonia (NH3) and total coliform. Soil composition and stratigraphy were determined by means of ground penetrating radar (GPR) and soil samples obtained from manually drilled boreholes. Initial results show that there is evidence of groundwater mounding and uneven flow distribution leaving the galley system as well as differences in soil classifications throughout the subsurface. FEMWATER, a 3-dimensional groundwater flow model, is being employed to simulate flow conditions associated with the galley site. The model will incorporate soil characteristics, water table data and many other hydrologic variables to better understand the subsurface flow and distribution associated the galley site.

 

BRIDGE SCOUR ANALYSIS: ROUTE 11 BRIDGE OVER TROUT CREEK, CORTLAND, NY. Anthony Browne, Wendy Weeks and James Hassett, Faculty of Environmental Resource and Forest Engineering, 315 Bray, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

The concern of bridge scour for the Route 11 bridge over Trout Creek in Cortland, NY was recognized by the NYS DOT and brought to the attention of our department at SUNY ESF. Bridge scour is of great concern due to the resulting failure of bridges during high stream velocity conditions, occurring during large storm events. The Maryland SHO Method for determining abutment scour and the Rapid Estimation Method for determining localized bridge scour were used to assess the scour depth for this bridge during a 25-year storm event. The cross-sectional geometry of the upstream river section and of the bridge section, along with a grain size analysis of the sediment bed were conducted for use in these estimation techniques. Historical data on storm velocities at this location also was used in our analysis. We found that if a storm event occurred at this location with a 25-year caliber, the scour depth at the abutments and the pier of this bridge may exceed the depth of footing for the bridge. Failure, in this case, would be very possible. Since this scenario has occurred in the past, elsewhere in New York State, it is recommended that preventive action take place. This could be in the form of rip-rap reinforcement at the bridge abutments and piers, or the design and construction of a new bridge.

 

COMPARISON OF MULTI-ALTITUDE DIGITAL IMAGES. Shan Chen, Michael J. Duggin, Department of Resource and Environmental Engineering, 312 Bray, SUNY-ESF, Syracuse, NY.

In this paper, we compare a series of multi-altitude remote sensing images of the same region. We apply different image processing methods to these images and discuss the results. It is hoped that further research will help us to choose and use multi-altitude remote sensing images. With more and more remote sensing images available and more and more application fields of these images today, there arises a question which every researcher has to consider before his or her work: what is the most appropriate scale of the remote sensing images for the application? Intensive research in using resolution-invariant statistics to find "the best" spatial resolution for certain environmental characteristics and to estimate the effects of scale change on spatial statistical properties of image. There have been many papers discussing scale in remote sensing and GIS. But there is still much work to do on this topic, especially in discussing the image characteristics of different scales. We use the remote sensing images of Utica airport to study the differences among this series of images when image processing methods are applied. It is an initial study in this area and further study will improve our understanding of the effects of scale on the characteristics of image. We use a series of images taken at different altitude at Utica airport, on 15, July 1998, using a calibrated Kodak DCS 460 CIR camera. Processing methods software includes ENVI 3.2 and Photoshop 5.0. Analysis methods include basic statistics (histogram, minimum, maximum and standard deviation of bv, correlation of different bands), FFT, PCA, ISODATA, resampling, and data fusion. Conclusions and Recommendations. Images of the same region taken at different altitude show different characteristics with the same image processing methods applied to them. The differences are band-dependent due to the atmospheric effects on different wavelength. It is the researcher's responsibility to choose the appropriate resolution images in his/her study. We should be careful when extending conclusions derived from images of one resolution to images of different resolution.

 

LINKS BETWEEN HYDROLOGY, TOPOGRAPHY, AND CHEMISTRY IN SHALLOW SUBSURFACE STORMWATER. Ron Ferris, John Camp, and Chuck Kroll, Faculty of Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering, 312 Bray Hall, SUNY ESF, Syracuse, NY, 13210.

The links between hydrology, topography, and water chemistry has received attention in recent literature. Most of these studies have compared variations in stream water chemistry across catchments. This study examined the temporal and spatial characteristics of streamflow and shallow subsurface stormwater chemistry throughout a single catchment, as well as the links between chemistry, topography, and hydrology. A network of 36 piezometers were installed in the 24 ha Dry Creek Catchment in the Neversink Watershed of New York's Catskills Mountains. Most of this catchment underwent a total tree harvest in early 1997, resulting in elevated nitrate concentrations across the site. During 5 storm events in the winter and spring of 1998, piezometers were sampled and nitrate, dissolved organic carbon, and sulfate concentrations were measured. A detailed topographic description of the watershed was developed using GPS and total stations, and various topographic indices were developed. An initial study found the strength of the relationship between shallow subsurface stormwater nitrate varied between storm events, and this variation was well described by antecedent moisture and antecedent temperature conditions. Results indicate the development of various degrees of hydrologic "connectivity" throughout the catchment during storm events. During storms, high nitrate surface soils are flushed, and waters are then moved laterally downslope to areas of high topographic index. An inverse relationship between topographic index and sulfate concentration was observed and no relationship between topography and DOC was observed. Here we investigate a number of assumptions employed in the initial study including: the impact of topographic sampling and DEM resolution on our results, the use of nonlinear at well as linear trend statistics, the impact of aggregating samples spatially and/or over depth, the use of weighted upslope, point, and downslope topographic indices on the analysis, and the use of geologic and biogeochemical information to aid in better explaining the variation in shallow subsurface stormwater chemistry across the site during storm events.

 

A CONCEPTUAL MODEL TO ILLUSTRATE CONSEQUENCES OF WATERLEVEL MANAGEMENT DECISIONS ON THE CENTRAL SECTION OF THE NYS BARGE CANAL SYSTEM. Andrew Gerardi, Charles Kroll and James Hassett, Faculty of Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering, 312 Bray Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

The New York State Canal System consists of four canals, the Erie, Champlain, Oswego and Cayuga-Seneca as well as the lakes and rivers that are interconnected in the canal system. The NYS Canal Corporation, a subsidiary of the NYS Thruway Authority, is responsible for controlling the water levels throughout the system. The original Barge Canal was designed in the early 1900's for commercial navigation and growing transportation needs of the times. The dams and control structures were designed and built not as flood control structures but to ensure water levels for navigation. Since the primary use of the Canal system is no longer commercial transportation, canal operations have become increasingly complex. In addition to navigation, recreation, flood control, hydroelectric power generation, boating, and fishing and other users are influenced by the operation of the Canal system. The secondary benefits of the Canal system have necessitated the optimization of operational procedures for water-level regulation during varying hydrologic conditions. The major reaches and control points of the canal system that lie within the Oswego River Basin are managed by the Syracuse Division of Canals. The SDC controls the water levels to ensure that the regulation procedure and water requirements are satisfied throughout the Oswego River basin. The Central Section of the Canal system is characterized as a large geographic area that is dynamic in nature. The water level management process is complex and laden with consequences that can effect the entire basin. The task is to develop a usable model that can illustrate the decision making process and the consequences that accompany any decision in the water-level management of the Canal System.

 

A FLOW MODEL OF THE ERIE CANAL SYSTEM. Dan Gilbert, James Hassett and Charles Kroll, Faculty of Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering, 312 Bray Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

An operational model of the Erie Canal System, within the Oswego River Basin, is being developed for the New York State Canal Corporation. The model is being developed with the HEC-UNET program for One-Dimensional Unsteady Flow Through a Full Network of Open Channels. The purpose of the model is to assist in the Canal Corporations daily operating decisions by predicting flows and water levels throughout the system given certain conditions. These conditions, which include boundary conditions and cross section data, are the inputs to the model. The boundary conditions are the simulated inputs to the canal system and include: (1) daily flow hydrographs at the upstream boundaries and lateral inflows; (2) a downstream rating curve; and (3) elevation controlled gates. The cross section data consists of the actual physical properties of the canal system and include: (1) a number of cross sections through each reach of the system; (2) storage areas; and (3) gate and dam dimensions. The output of the model, predicted flows and stages, will help canal managers by showing them the results of their actions.

 

HYDRAULIC REDESIGN OF AN URBAN CHANNEL: MEADOWBROOK, SYRACUSE, NY. Matthew Lehrer, Vincent Barber and James M. Hassett, Faculty of Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering, 312 Bray Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

Urban streams are often in channels designed and constructed to reduce flood hazards. However, the channels can be unsightly and otherwise function in less than ideal ways. The Meadowbrook is channelized through most of its length as it flows through the southeastern part of Syracuse. The channel section between Lancaster Avenue and Buckingham Place is notorious as a sediment trap, and has collected a volume of sediments to the extent that an emergent plant community exists in the channel. We conducted a series of sediment analyses to determine the nature of the sediments, and used that data along with hydrologic information as to flows and hydraulic data as to depths and flow velocities to redesign the channel section. We used the HEC-RAS software to help in problem analysis and design. The redesigned channel employs a trapezoidal section which will allow for increased flow velocity and prevent sediments to accumulate.

 

ENGINEERING ANALYSIS TO DESIGN A PROCESS TO REMOVE AMMONIA FROM DAIRY SLURRY. Matthew Lehrer and Douglas Daley, Faculty of Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering, 312 Bray Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

The On-Farm Fertilization and Recovery System (OFFRS) is an integrated treatment process that uses filtration, ammonia removal, composting, biofiltration, and vermiculture to treat and recover beneficial products from animal manure. The heart of the system is a vegetated biofilter, which is essentially a constructed upland using plants, soil, and earthworms to recover biological solids and treat water prior to discharge. In order for the biofilter to work, the wastewater must be pretreated to remove ammonia, which is toxic to earthworms in high concentrations. The purpose of this independent study is to treatment conditions. The project evaluated ammonia removal by aeration and pH adjustment. Aeration, also known as ammonia stripping, removes ammonia by bubbling air through the wastewater, causing the ammonia nitrogen to bond with the oxygen, which then disperses into the atmosphere. Using aeration as an ammonia removal process depends upon temperature and pH, two factors which may be difficult to control in agricultural wastewater applications. While pH adjustment can be accomplished by adding lime, the volume of solids generated may require additional handling processes beyond the capability of many farms. Consequently, the engineering analysis has to balance the farmer's needs for material handling with the chemistry and engineering needed to remove ammonia. Preliminary tests revealed that the ammonia concentration of the wastewater is 160 ppm and that 0.0017 kg/L of lime is needed to raise the pH to 10.5 for optimum ammonia removal. The volume of air for stripping ammonia to a concentration of 1 ppm was found to be 1,242 L air/L liquid.

 

URBAN COVER CLASSIFICATION USING HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION IMAGERY. Soojeong Myeong, Paul Hopkins, Faculty of Environmental and Resource Engineering. 312 Bray Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

High-resolution digital aerial imagery was used for Syracuse urban cover classification. The imagery provided by Litton-Emerge Corporation had 2-foot ground sample distance and three different spectral bands - near infrared, red and green. The project attempted to identify five classes: tree, grass, bare soil, water and impervious surface. We had difficulty due to confusion of similar spectral response between different classes. The poor accuracy resulted from water and dark impervious surfaces; concrete and bare soil; grass and trees. Masking was applied for classifying water. Texture and band ratio were added to the process to improve the classification result. Texture was selected because the variability in tree canopy and urban forest structure looked different from grass. 15 by 15 variance texture of every band were added to the original imagery. The window size for texture analysis was determined from semivariogram using Variowin software. Band ratio, NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) was selected because NDVI often helps distinguishing vegetation from other classes. Adding more information to the original bands improved the accuracy of grass from 34 to 74 % and that of bare soil from 4 % to 32 %. The overall accuracy increased from 58 % to 73 %.

 

SITE SELECTION TO MONITOR DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT PRECURSORS TO A DRINKING WATER RESERVOIR SYSTEM. Jill Piskorz, Paul Heisig and James M. Hassett. Faculty of Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering, 312 Bray Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

Disinfection by-products (DBPs) are generated by the reaction of trace amounts of organic matter in drinking water with the chemical agent (usually chlorine) used to disinfect the water. In waters with high occasional episodes of high organic matter, the concentration of DBPs can exceed regulatory limits, making the water source temporarily unusable. We are establishing a network of sites to use in determining the source of DBP precursors to a drinking water reservoir system. The sites are being selected to cover a variety of land uses in the watershed. We will sample streams draining small sub-watersheds with a variety of more or less homogeneous land uses. We will sample during both baseflow and storm events, using a variety of active and passive samplers. The sampling and analytical results will be used to better understand the sources of DBPs to a drinking water reservoir system.

 

AN ONGOING EXPERIMENT OF CAPILLARY FRINGE DYNAMICS IN STREAMFLOW GENERATION. Karen Ann Sinko and Chuck Kroll, Faculty of Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering, 312 Bray Hall, SUNY ESF, Syracuse, NY, 13210.

The role of the capillary fringe in streamflow generation has become firmly entrenched in the hydrologic literature as a mechanism to explain large contributions of pre-event water to a stream during storm events (Abdul and Gillham, 1984; Jayatilaka and Gillham, 1996). This is despite the fact that few studies have been able to document this process in the field. McDonnell and Buttle (1998) showed that the importance of the capillary fringe effect in producing large fluxes of groundwater to the stream needs to be considered in light of hydrometric, isotopic, and geochemical evidence to the contrary. There is a need to critically assess this mechanism both in the field and laboratory to determine its relative role in streamflow generation. An ongoing lab-based experiment is presented. Two sand tanks have been instrumented with tensiometers and pressure transducers to continuously monitor soil moisture status during simulated precipitation events. Using numerous tracers, we will monitor capillary fringe dynamics and stream discharge concentrations to assess the microscale hydrologic processes present.

 

A SAMPLING PLAN TO DETERMINE COLOR SOURCES OF A DRINKING WATER RESERVOIR SYSTEM. Julie Tasillo1 and Dr. James Hassett2, 1Graduate Student in Environmental Science, and 2Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210

The New York City Department of Environmental Protection (NYCDEP), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), and the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY ESF) have undertaken a study of the New York City water system. The purpose of this study is to conduct field investigations associated with the problems of cultural eutrophication and its impacts. To address this issue, I will examine sources of color to the Croton watershed. Every summer since 1992 due to the water quality problems including high levels of color, the Croton System had to be shut down (NYC-DEP 1994). The Croton System encompasses a 375 square mile watershed consisting of twelve reservoirs and three lakes tapping the Croton River. This system provides up to 250 million gallons of water per day to New York City. Using an underwater viewer containing Munsell color patches I will examine the color of water in tributaries to the watershed. Tributaries will be sampled during baseflow and storm events to determine the impacts of predominant land use surrounding the tributaries. Color samples will be compared to other investigators' samples including total suspended solids (TSS), chlorophyll a, and yellow substance (gelbstoff).

 

USE OF GEOSTATISTICAL ALGORITHMS TO MODEL UNCERTAINTY IN SOIL LEAD CONCENTRATIONS AT SKEET AND TRAP RANGES. William Thayer and James M. Hassett, Faculty of Environmental and Forest Engineering, Bray Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

The concentrations of contaminants in soil at hazardous waste sites frequently exhibit significant positive spatial autocorrelation. Positive spatial autocorrelation means the concentrations of a contaminant measured at two nearby locations will tend to be similar. Faced with uncertainty due to limited information, geostatistics is becoming a popular tool for predicting the concentration of a contaminant at unsampled locations. Geostatistics takes advantage of the spatial autocorrelation latent in measured soil concentrations, thereby maximizing the information present in the limited data. Perhaps more important, geostatistics can be used to develop probability distributions of uncertainty in contaminant concentrations at unsampled locations. The models of uncertainty can be used directly, or as inputs to some transfer function (e.g., groundwater flow models), to determine areas of the site that are candidates for additional sampling or remediation. The algorithms available to model uncertainty differ in their statistical properties. The indiscriminate use of a particular algorithm may have lead a risk manager to make decisions that are more conservative (i.e., biased towards the protection of human health) or less conservative than intended. The accumulation of lead, arsenic, antimony and nickel (components of lead shot) at skeet and trap ranges pose a potential risk to human health and ecological receptors. We demonstrate the use of selected geostatistic algorithms to prepare maps of predicted soil lead concentrations and models of uncertainty in soil lead concentration at a skeet and trap range. The maps are then compared and the advantages and disadvantages of the different algorithms are discussed. Probability distributions for the uncertainty in blood lead concentrations in adults who may be exposed to the skeet and trap range site were modeled using the EPA Interim Adult Lead Methodology (ALM) and the probability distributions of uncertainty in soil lead concentration. The output from the ALM was used to prepare maps of the probability of exceeding a blood lead concentration of 10 g/dL (P10). The maps of P10 are compared and discussed, with a focus on the areas that would be targeted for cleanup (i.e., those areas were P10 > 5%).

 

NASA AFFILIATED RESEARCH CENTER - SUNY COLLEGE OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND FORESTRY. Kerry Van Siclen, Lindi Quackenbush and Dr. Paul Hopkins, Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering, 312 Bray Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210

The NASA Affiliated Research Center (ARC) located at the SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry aims to promote the use of remote sensing and spatial information in industry while enhancing commercial development. As part of their Commercial Remote Sensing Program (CRSP), NASA is funding research centers in order to increase commercial uses of remotely sensed data. The ARCs work in conjunction with companies on highly focused projects that develop remote sensing alternatives to methods currently implemented by the company. At ESF, the Center's primary affiliation is with the Faculty of Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering, although it draws resources and expertise from several other departments. The ARC at SUNY-ESF has worked cooperatively with companies including Emerge, PAR Government Systems, International Hardwood Consulting and Highland Geographic, Inc. For the student researchers involved, the ARC develops awareness and establishes a basic knowledge in remote sensing and spatial data. Understanding the nature of the projects and the implementation of remote sensing provides a venue of learning otherwise unavailable. Realizing the capability of remotely sensed data encourages the desire to continue working with this constantly developing technology. The future of this technology offers a multitude of possibilities spanning numerous disciplines. The ARC provides a practical and professional learning environment for both students and commercial partners. Being a part of the NASA Affiliated Research Center opens up career possibilities within environmental engineering that were previously unforeseen.

 

WATERSHED MANAGEMENT: ESTABLISHING CRITERIA TO CHOOSE APPROPRIATE MODEL(S) TO SATISFY MULTIPLE OBJECTIVES. Jun Wang1, Jeffrey McDonnell2 and James M. Hassett1 Faculty of Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering1, 312 Bray Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY and Department of Forest Engineering2, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.

Water quality managers are charged with providing a safe, reliable source of drinking water. The social, political, and technical issues in discharging this responsibility have in recent years become increasingly complex. Development pressures have caused rural watersheds to become increasingly suburbanized. New and/or more stringent water quality regulations in terms of disinfection by-products (DBPs) and pathogens have raised new questions as to the relationship between the terrestrial processes and receiving water quality. Water quality managers have frequently used models to address the relationship between terrestrial processes and water quality. However, the new questions and issues have generated concerns about the appropriate choice of water quality models in terms of model structure, problems addressed, data needs, and defensibility. We selected representative models to use to develop a scheme by which to evaluate models for use by watershed managers. The models (TOPMODEL, HSPF, SWMM, GWLF) were selected to represent a range of models, ranging from a research model used to test hypotheses about hydrologic flow paths (TOPMODEL) to a highly parameterized model with subroutines developed for specific water quantity/quality flow problems (HSPF).

 

FOREST CLASSIFICATION USING COHERENCE AND BACKSCATTER DATA FROM SATELLITE SAR IMAGERY. Cheng Zhu, Soojeong Myeong, Paul F. Hopkins, 312 Bray Hall, Department of Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering,, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) from satellites provides the opportunity to regularly incorporate microwave information into forest classification. Radar backscatter could improve classification accuracy but temporal backscatter and phase information may be even more useful. Specifically, SAR interferometric correlation (called coherence) which is a measure of the accuracy of the estimation of the interferometric phase could provide improved thematic information. Our research studies the use of multi-temporal SAR backscatter information and interferometry for forest mapping and monitoring in the Northeastern U.S. This poster focuses on using JERS-1 SAR images (L band) to classify forest areas in a research property in the Adirondack Mountains of New York. Processing methods include using interferometric techniques to estimate the coherence of a pair of images, and using elevation data to improve the geometric characteristics of both coherence and backscatter images. The research also looked at simplified methods for using multi-temporal backscatter in preparation for fusion with optical imagery such as Landsat Thematic Mapper. Results show the capabilities of JERS satellite radar data in terms of discriminating forest types. These results compare (for multiple dates) the use of only radar backscatter, multi-temporal backscatter, coherence, and backscatter combined with coherence. Conclusions describe the applicability of JERS radar imagery to classifying forests in the northeastern U.S. and present prospects for future work and future sensors.

 

A PLAN FOR A MULTI-INVESTIGATOR STUDY OF THE NEW YORK CITY DRINKING WATER SUPPLY. Stephanie A. Zumbuhl and James M. Hassett, Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering, 312 Bray Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

We are examining linkages between hydrologic processes in urbanizing watersheds and receiving reservoir water quality in a reservoir system that supplies 10% of the drinking water to New York City. Three different types of sites will be monitored to determine the movement of water quality constituents from the landscape to the reservoirs. The three types of sites are "broad brush", intensive, and wetlands. The "broad brush" approach evaluates sources of nutrients, color and disinfectant by-product (DBP) potential of the watershed. Several first and second order streams will be sampled to establish a basin-wide understanding of the origin of these components. The hypotheses tested will be 1) characterization of nutrient and color sources can be predicted using a basin-wide source assessment; 2) characterization of organic carbon sources and their DBP formation potential can be predicted using a basin-wide source assessment for DBP's. The intensive sites require the selection, detailed characterization, and instrumenting of three sites for detailed monitoring to test specific hypothesis regarding the origins and transport of nutrients, color and DBP precursors. Three representative areas for further study have been selected on the basis of land use, land cover, degree of sub-urbanization, size, elevation, aspect, etc. The sites bracket the dominant land uses and topographic positions within the watershed: forested uplands, residential watersheds with associated BMP's and urban sites with point sources. The hypotheses tested will be 1) DOC flushing and draining and N transformation can be predicted by the topographic index and catchment position; 2) water residence time and its control on solute contact time and water color; 3) runoff production mechanisms and flowpaths are different in the 3 selected watersheds - these different mechanisms control the export of nutrients at the watershed scale; 4) geographic sources of water can be determined using end member mixing and isotope hydrograph separation techniques. The wetland sites will test the hypothesis wetland zones are "Hot Spots" for contributions of elevated DOC and increased "Color" to streams. These studies will help quantify the water quality impacts and loads on the reservoirs supplying drinking water to New York City. The reservoir component of this study will identify and quantify and quantify important physical, chemical and biologic process regulating the trophic states, and color level of specified reservoirs.

 

 


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