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2000 Spotlight on Graduate and Undergraduate Research at ESF
Construction Management and Wood Products Engineering Abstracts

 

Contents

THE UTILIZATION OF TIMBERLINE ESTIMATING SOFTWARE IN THE COST MANAGEMENT PROCESS AS APPLICABLE TO A CONSTRUCTION PROJECT. Jonathan Kirk and Kenneth Tiss, AIC, CPC. Faculty of Construction Management and Wood Products Engineering, 415 Baker Laboratory, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210

WOOD COLOR CHANGE AND CONTROL DURING DRYING. Daniel Montoney and Dr. William Smith, Wood Products and Environmental Resource Engineering, 418 Baker Lab, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

A COLORIMETRIC TECHNIQUE AND MATHEMATICAL PROCEDURE TO EVALUATE MASS TRANSFER IN WOOD. Hwanmyeong Yeo, William B. Smith, Wood Products Engineering, and Robert B. Hanna, Director of Center for Ultrastructure Studies, State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, N.Y., USA


Abstracts

THE UTILIZATION OF TIMBERLINE ESTIMATING SOFTWARE IN THE COST MANAGEMENT PROCESS AS APPLICABLE TO A CONSTRUCTION PROJECT. Jonathan Kirk and Kenneth Tiss, AIC, CPC. Faculty of Construction Management and Wood Products Engineering, 415 Baker Laboratory, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210

Computer software programs are playing a major role in cost control and its management throughout today's construction industry. Estimating and cost control of projects are critical to success in the construction industry. These two activities must be monitored accurately and on a timely basis. If there are any deviations between the actual cost and estimated cost, they must be spotted early so corrections can be made. The use of software programs such as Timberline allows the industry to develop an estimate for materials in addition to labor cost required for a construction project. However, the cost control does not end here, the program will track the cost of the project by up dating on a weekly or monthly basis, as is required by contract. By utilizing cost control software programs, the data is available to management in a timely manner, allowing management to be able to control a projects current cash flow along with being able to forecast the financial status of the project into the future. Since most construction decisions are based upon cost, it is important for the construction firm to be familiar with computer software programs in order to progress as efficiently as possible and remain competitive with other construction firms.

 

WOOD COLOR CHANGE AND CONTROL DURING DRYING. Daniel Montoney and Dr. William Smith, Wood Products and Environmental Resource Engineering, 418 Baker Lab, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

The hardwood lumber industry is currently experiencing an increasing demand by furniture manufactures, cabinetmakers, and export markets for raw material with a desirable and consistent color. A portable color spectrophotometer manufactured by Datacolor International and supported by their color quality control software was used for measuring the color of various species of conventional kiln and RF/V (Radio Frequency Vacuum Kiln) dried hardwood lumber. Industrial experience and research have both shown that lumber color changes due to chemical modifications are influenced by the temperature and relative humidity conditions the wood is exposed to during the drying process. By incorporating the established instrument and standards for color measurement and communication we can objectively compare color changes and differences resulting from different drying techniques. In the first study, a fresh hard maple log was manufactured into 7/8"(t) x 4"(w) x 15"(l) samples which were dried in laboratory conditioning chambers by four different drying schedules. Drying chambers A and B employed the USDA regular hard maple (T8-C3) and USDA white hard maple (T3-C5) schedules respectively. Chambers C and D used modified schedules consisting of lower dry bulb temperatures and lower %RH conditions. Color data from sample boards was recorded before and after drying. The application of different drying schedules on matched samples yielded distinct color differences between schedules. These color differences would be visually perceivable by most human observers, however the color spectrophotometer returned unbiased data with real differences in color. The second study was designed to document the color of multiple hardwood species dried by various schedules and techniques. Sample species included; RF/V dried ash, conventional kiln and pre-steamed RF/V dried cherry, conventional kiln dried hard maple, conventional kiln and RF/V dried soft maple, and white oak panel parts. Color analysis of pre-steamed radio frequency/vacuum kiln dried cherry showed a reduced lightness and color difference between heartwood and sapwood compared to conventionally kiln dried cherry. Soft maple dried via the RF/V kiln was lighter than the lightest conventionally dried hard maple. Not only did the RF/V kiln drying provide a faster drying time, but it also produced lighter, brighter lumber. The color spectrophotometer proved to be a simple and useful means for documenting and communicating color changes and differences on clear, surfaced hardwood species.

 

A COLORIMETRIC TECHNIQUE AND MATHEMATICAL PROCEDURE TO EVALUATE MASS TRANSFER IN WOOD. Hwanmyeong Yeo, William B. Smith, Wood Products Engineering, and Robert B. Hanna, Director of Center for Ultrastructure Studies, State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, N.Y., USA

The objectives of this work are to develop a colorimetric technique for determining surface moisture content of wood, utilizing the relationship between CoCl2 hydrate color change and relative humidity, and to perform a mathematical analysis of mass transfer in wood using this technique. Wood surfaces exhibit different color values when exposed under different circumstances. For example, the surface of wet wood is usually relatively dark, while dried surfaces are a lighter color. It is difficult, however, to determine specific moisture content by color change of wood specimens when there is little variation or change with incremental moisture content, especially when below the fiber saturation point. To address this problem, wood specimens were treated with cobalt chloride (CoCl2) hydrate, a compound whose color depends upon and changes with relative humidity. Cobalt chloride hydrate treated wood was shown to exhibit a reddish color that then changes to a bluish color, over the high to low hygroscopic moisture content range, respectively. A spectrophotometer proved useful for determining the specific color values, which were correlated to surface moisture content of these wood specimens. These surface moisture content values can then be utilized to determine the moisture content distribution in the specimen. Previous attempts to determine moisture content distribution were calculated using estimated surface moisture content values. These surface moisture content values were not measured but estimated to be equal to the equilibrium moisture content under surrounding relative humidity condition. Utilizing surface moisture content values measured with the colorimetric technique, one can more accurately determine the diffusion coefficient and the moisture content distribution in wood during drying. As accurate surface moisture content is an important factor in the potential for formation and prevention of surface checks, these techniques could prove useful to scientific investigators.

 

 



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