Spotlight 2002 Abstracts
Environmental Resource and Forest EngineeringHYDROLOGIC STORM RESPONSE IN TWO ADIRONDACK WETLANDS
Maryann Ashworth and Charles Kroll, Faculty of Environmental Resource Engineering, 411A Bray Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.
To examine the storm dynamics of surface water connections with groundwater in wetland systems and their changing dynamics with time, we are studying two wetlands in the Archer Creek Watershed, Huntington Wildlife Forest, Newcomb, New York. Previous studies indicate differences between the hydrologic response of the two sites. Transects of well and piezometer clusters are positioned across the creek above and below the confluences of the main stream and tributary and across the tributary. Head and water table data at each cluster and stream levels for each transect have been collected by dataloggers at one-hour intervals. The interval of data collection gives a real-time picture of stream channel height, water table elevation, and hydraulic head response. Two storms of approximately equivalent strength and duration with different antecedent soil moisture conditions were studied. Hydraulic conductivity determinations within the peat and alluvium ranged from 10-4 to 10-5cm/sec across the transects. Initial analyses indicate that there is little difference in wetting patterns between antecedent wet and dry conditions or between wetlands for these two storms. A more intensive study of near-stream response and wetland stratigraphy may reveal complexities in response depending on the history and makeup of the substratum.
Jonathan Beckhorn, Darin DeKoskie, Scott Fonte, Steven McCague, Benjamin Tillotson and James M. Hassett Faculty of Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering, SUNY-ESF, Syracuse, NY 13210.
A variety of channel types on Mars suggest the importance of fluvial water in shaping the Martian surface. Extensive valley networks, huge ancient circum-Chyrse channels, and extremely recent, smaller flood channels indicate the prevalence of surface water flow throughout Martian history. An accurate method for quantifying flow in these various channels would provide important clues to Mars' geologic, hydrologic, and atmospheric history. We derived from a force balance on an element of fluid a velocity equation appropriate for the Martian environment. Velocity is calculated as a function of a gravity force resolved in the downslope direction and a retarding friction force that is a function of the Reynold’s number and channel equivalent roughness, i.e.,
In this equation, Dh is 4 x hydraulic radius, and sin q is the channel slope, both determinable from Mara Orbiting Laser Altimeter data. The friction factor f, a function of the channel Reynold's number, is estimated iteratively from channel and fluid properties. Thus, our method takes Martian gravity explicitly into account and is valid for a range of flow conditions as parameterized by the Reynold's number. Our velocity calculations are consistently lower, by a factor of 5 to 6, than velocities calculated by other methods; for example, in one section of the Kasei vallis, we calculated a velocity of 5.8 m s-1, versus values of 25.5 m s-1 and 33.7 m s-1 from other methods.
Jessica Black, Theodore Endreny, Donald Leopold, Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering, Environmental and Forest Biology, 410 Bray Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.
The successful reintroduction of a species to an altered river system requires a thorough understanding of the flow regime of that altered system. If the flow regime does not recreate suitable habitat for the species, project labor and money will be lost. Due to the large interest in the reintroduction of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, to Onondaga Creek, I am currently focusing my thesis work on the flow regime of an urbanized section of Onondaga creek and what restoration techniques may be employed to best support that species. Atlantic salmon have very specific temperature and streamflow requirements in different life stages. For the survival of a sustainable population of Atlantic salmon within Onondaga Creek, these requirements must be met in a variety of ecosystems and flow regimes.
To determine the best restoration techniques, I will create two computer models that, when combined, simulate the streamflow and temperature of Onondaga Creek under restored conditions. The first model will simulate streamflow and temperature of Onondaga Creek over time and space. This model will be a stochastic model, calculating streamflow based on seasonal predictability derived from hydrographs, and algorithms derived from probability exceedance graphs of flood flashiness, flood magnitude, and flood duration. The second model will simulate streamflow and temperature of a channelized creek under different restoration conditions. This model will be a deterministic model, calculating streamflow and temperature based upon fluid dynamics equations and open channel hydraulics equations. I will also develop algorithms based on pre-existing watershed and river models.
The Onondaga Creek Simulation model and the Restoration models will be able to produce results independent of each other and will have user-friendly interfaces. They will be made available to the public upon completion. The combination of these two models will generate output that will be compared with the output from a preferred gradients Atlantic salmon model being developed at ESF. Through comparison, restoration managers will be able to determine the feasibility of reintroduction of Atlantic salmon and which restoration alternatives, if any, would best recreate a suitable habitat for the fish species that was once native to this creek and throughout the region.
Shan Chen, Paul Hopkins, Lindi Quackenbush, Trevis J. Gigliotti, Michael T. Maute and Gregory Thorhaug, 410 Bray Hall, Department of Environmental and Resource Engineering, SUNY-ESF, Syracuse, NY 13210
In this research, we test different strategies for deriving true color images from high-resolution images with only Near Infrared band, Red band, and Green band.
Then we use the color-naturalized images with Digital Elevation Data to simulate fly-through.
We compare three methods in both time complexity and space complexity:
1. Key frame method, which is derived from the MPEG algorithm, uses low-resolution buffer, middle resolution buffer and high-resolution buffer to implement the visual effects of fly-through movie
2. Sector/Tile method used in ERDAS Imagine builds a hierarchical data structure for generating fly-through scenes
3. Fly-through movie generated by EDR using 3D Max
By visual effect evaluation, we are able to find the appropriate parameters used to do the color naturalization.
Movie generated by 3D Max has the best overall visual effect.
Key frame method takes much more time than sector/tile method but can give us more control on the fly-through movie.
Jason Cole, Kerry Van Siclen, William Stiteler IV, Paul Hopkins, Environmental Resource and Forest Engineering, 303 Bray Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse NY 13210
The positional accuracy of ground reference data used for remote sensing image analysis is important. Accuracy is particularly important if the reference is used with imagery of high spatial resolution, where an error of a few meters prevents many applications. Absolute accuracy of a GPS measurement is difficult to assess when a measurement is independent of a network. Also, conditions under which a GPS receiver is used can significantly alter absolute accuracy. This poster describes a method for assessing the absolute accuracy of a Leica GPS300 survey grade receiver under varying forest canopy conditions. Locations found using a closed traverse constructed with conventional surveying techniques were compared to locations found using GPS receivers. The absolute accuracy ranged from 0.001 meters in open fields to 0.832 meters under medium softwood forest canopies.
Adam J. Etringer and Dr. James M. Hassett, Faculty of Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering, 312 Bray Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210, Dr. Steven W. Effler, Upstate Freshwater Institute, P.O. Box 506, Syracuse, NY 13214.
Temporal and spatial dynamics are presented for metalimnetic and near-bottom sediment trap collections of particulate phosphorus (PP), chlorophyll (Chl), particulate organic carbon (POC), and suspended solids, during the stratified periods of 1999 and 2000 in the New Croton Reservoir. The contribution of non-phytoplankton particles (tripton) to the PP pool caused a decoupling of the downward fluxes of Chl and PP. These contributions were observed in the stoichiometry of trap collections and the higher estimates of settling velocity (SV) of PP compared to Chl. Tripton represented 73-89% of the deposited phosphorus. Water column concentrations and sediment deposition generally decreased in the downstream direction in the reservoir. Comparisons of deposition of near-bottom to metalimnetic traps at two sampling stations, and transmissometry data indicate that resuspension is occurring. These finding have direct bearing on the successful simulation of water quality models.
Michael Maute, Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering, 312 Bray Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210. Dr. Paul Hopkins, Trevis Gigliotti, Gregory Thorhaug, Dr. John Felleman P.E., Sam Gordon, City of Syracuse Department of Community and Economic Development, and Samuel Sage, Atlantic States Legal Foundation.
Restoration of degraded natural resources has become one of the items on the forefront of public attention. Once natural in character, Onondaga Creek has been significantly altered by human inhabitants (e.g. channel straightening, channel excavation, bank modification) to create an efficient carrier of water. Due to its central geographic position within the City of Syracuse, the potential restoration of the creek to enhance the economy, environment and quality of life in the community interests a number of organizations. The City of Syracuse Department of Community and Economic Development, Atlantic States Legal Foundation and NASA Affiliated Research Center are currently working to support planning efforts for restoring the natural course of Onondaga Creek. This project demonstrates the utility of high-resolution aerial imagery and spatial databases to qualitatively assess changes that have occurred to Onondaga Creek. Dynamic segmentation has positioned current channel attributes (e.g. width, depth, bank composition) along their corresponding finite sections on the creek channel. In addition, a spatial database containing information such as property ownership, land cover, and slope has characterized areas surrounding the channel. Traditional database and dynamic querying methods are being used to identify creek sections with high restoration feasibility. Finally, the overlay of current and historic stream channels on high-resolution imagery characterizes the context of the creek, and offers visual insight into potential restoration locations. Future application of this work involves showcasing the project to a variety of citizens and organizations to foster public involvement in the Onondaga Creek restoration decision-making process.
Nicholas Ohrazda1, James M. Hassett1 and Stephen W. Effler2. 1Faculty of Environmental and Resources Engineering, 312 Bray Hall, SUNY-ESF, and 2Upstate Freshwater Institute, Syracuse, NY
Color and turbidity are water quality issues in surface water supply reservoirs. The optical characteristics of the Muscoot and New Croton Reservoirs of the New York City drinking water supply system were measured over the 1999-2001 field seasons. Field measurements of light penetration; the angular distribution of irradiance (reflectance); transmissometry; and measurements of optical backscatter, in situ chlorophyll fluorescence, dissolved organic matter; laboratory measurements of turbidity, suspended solids, chlorophyll, particulate organic carbon, apparent and true color, and gelbstoff; and calculations of absorption and scattering coefficients, were conducted. Preliminary results show little interannual variation in optical measures and attenuating components for the two reservoirs. Longitudinal gradients in attenuating components, and therefore optical properties, prevailed along the main axis of New Croton Reservoir; light attenuation and the relative role of scattering decreased with the approach to the dam. Some notable temporal variations in optical characteristics are observed for each of the reservoirs for all the years studied. These dynamics appear to be the result of variations in phytoplankton biomass in early spring and mid to late summer, and tripton became the regulating component as a result of storm events. Regressions models are being applied to determine relationships between alternate measures of color and turbidity.
Mark Pugh, Michael Wheeler, Paula Christman, Gary Fontaine, Edward Meyer, Scott Olsewski, Sam Palermo, Caroline Romano, FEG 363/563, Faculty of Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering, 312 Bray Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry.
Digital photography is one tool of photogrammetry that is becoming more prevalent in business and government applications. This presentation describes a program that was developed to obtain accurate measurements and size information from digital photographs of a subject scene. We designed a camera setup procedure, ground control protocol, and a data reduction program to fulfill the demand for a quick, accurate, and simple mapping system. The 2-dimensional mapping system produces an output position accurate to +/- 25mm for any object or point in the subject scene that can be identified on the digital image. Control targets having known coordinates are placed in object space and recorded in image space when the digital photos are taken. Image space (pixel) measurements of these control targets are used to define a mathematical transformation. Use of this transformation with the measurements of other images enables one to locate points of interest in the object space. This procedure can generate a plan view map of the subject scene with every pixel being assigned known coordinates in the real world space.
William Thayer and James Hassett. Faculty of Environmental and Resources Engineering, 312 Bray Hall, SUNY-ESF, Syracuse, NY 13210
Design-based estimators (e.g. simple arithmetic mean) are currently used by risk assessors to estimate the concentration of contaminants present at Superfund sites. Geostatistical estimators, which fall into the category of model-based estimators, in contrast have seen limited use, particularly in human and ecological risk assessments. The choice of which method is used to estimate the concentration of contaminants present at Superfund sites has a large influence on the amount of material that must be remediated and therefore, the efficiency with which limited funds are allocated for site cleanups. The objective of this research is to test the hypothesis that geostatistical estimators provide more accurate estimates than currently used methods, under the limited data scenario. The research objective will be pursued via a factorial computer simulation experiment. Factors of the experiment will include sample size, skewness, spatial autocorrelation and spatial variation and the various estimators to be compared; responses measured will include bias and variance of the estimators and their type I and II error rates. This research will provide a set of rules and a decision tree/flow chart that Superfund risk assessors and project managers can use to make an informed choice of the appropriate estimator(s) for a site, given the exposure scenario and statistics of the available data. The proposed work will produce two outputs of value to environmental scientists that are involved with hazardous waste site assessments and cleanups. First, it will synthesize the literature on estimating spatial means. This synthesis will provide a needed reference for environmental professionals who are required to select a method for estimating exposure point concentrations but lack formal training in statistics. Secondly, the proposed work will also extend the work of others who have prepared decision trees to guide soil scientists in the selection of appropriate methods for estimating spatial means. The proposed work will produce an expanded decision tree and rules for selecting estimators for the exposure point concentration at Superfund sites. The proposed study will include methods that were not considered by previous researchers. The proposed experiment will also compare the different estimation methods using data that exhibit characteristics often observed in environmental pollution data: low sample numbers, high positive skewness and variance, non-constant variance in space, and spatial autocorrelation.
Kerry Van Siclen and Dr. Paul Hopkins, Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering, 312 Bray Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210
Dr. Andrzej Krol and Dr. David Feiglin, Upstate Medical University
This poster discusses research on the possible application of MRI as an adjunct to mammography. Mammograms have uncertainties that create the need for needle biopsies. Many times these biopsies are unnecessary. It is hypothesized that MRI with a contrast agent can be used as a follow-up imaging method to reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies. Using the ImageJ software plugin capability, uptake of the contrast agent vs. time after injection and statistical information can be extracted for 3D regions of interest drawn around a suspicious lesion. The goal is to determine if certain statistical properties and a slope of the contrast agent uptake curve vs. time correlate with malignancy of a suspicious lesion. The histogram of a region of interest may also be of help to detect cancerous lesions. This research will study these issues with the ultimate goal to develop a clinical procedure of using MRI as minimally invasive adjunct to mammography.
Jun Wang, Theodore Endreny and James M. Hassett Faculty of Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering, 312 Bray Hall, SUNY-ESF, Syracuse, NY 13210
A new hydrological model (OBJTOP) with a graphical user interface (GUI) was created using Object-Oriented Design (OOD) methods and the Objected-Oriented Programming (OOP) language-C++. OBJTOP is based on TOPMODEL concepts, but has been designed to relax some of the assumptions in Beven’s original model. OBJTOP incorporates several model scenarios into one model package and thus provides sixteen schemes for hydrological simulations. This capability can be applied to various watershed conditions and soil types and thus improves the ability and flexibility of the model in hydrologic simulation and model calibration. There are no limits in OBJTOP for simulation time steps and the size of containers storing data (such as meteorological and DEM data). The GUI provides an easy and efficient design for data input, parameter modification, simulation scheme selection and model calibration. Various graphical outputs are available.
Steven Wolosoff, Jon Duncan, Tim Riley, Todd Cridge, Rachel Boncyzk, Jill Piskorz, and Dr. Ted Endreny, ERE 796 Pollution Fate & Transport Course, 207 Marshall Hall, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210
Fickian mixing in surface waters, the sum of mechanical dispersion and turbulent diffusion, describes the spreading of a chemical mass away from its center. These mixing processes occur in tandem with the advection or transport of the chemical’s center of mass along the mean flow vector. The magnitude of mixing as a chemical moves downstream is quantified by a Fickian transport coefficient. This coefficient can be estimated by either analyzing the behavior of a conservative tracer, or according to an empirical relationship that considers channel properties and stream velocity. This research tested the hypothesis that this empirical relationship is an accurate estimator of Fickian transport coefficients in urban reaches. Methods used in testing this hypothesis included a) surveying channel geometries and water surface profiles at various cross sections along a section of Syracuse’s Meadow Brook and b) conducting a tracer test location using an upstream slug injection of sodium chloride. Each method requires a number of assumptions about pollutant fate and transport processes in streams, which are reviewed and discussed. Results from October 2001 show that estimations for the Fickian transport coefficient were comparable between both methods and to the literature. The rate of Fickian mixing impacts the constituent concentration of stream water at points downstream and therefore plays a significant role in protecting water quality downstream of a pollutant source.