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Construction Management and Wood Products Engineering


Spotlight 2003 Abstracts

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IMPACT OF SIMPLE GREEN CONCENTRATIONS ON RADISHES TO TEST FOR ITS USAGE IN GRAY WATER RECYCLING SYSTEMS
Greg Rust

A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF FACE-TO-FACE INSTRUTION WITH SELF INSTRUCTION UTILIZING POWER POINT AS PART OF THE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRACTION 30-HOUR CONSTRUCTION OUTREACH COURSE
Kenneth J. Tiss, AIC, CPC and Dr. George Kyanka

FUZZY GRAIN DEVELOPMENT AND CUTTING FORCES IN TENSION WOOD
Iris Vazquez-Cooz and Robert Meyer

Abstracts

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IMPACT OF SIMPLE GREEN CONCENTRATIONS ON RADISHES TO TEST FOR ITS USAGE IN GRAY WATER RECYCLING SYSTEMS
Greg Rust , Student of Construction Management, SUNY, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

Simple Green is a biodegradable surfactant used as a cleaner in many applications for both the residential and industrial markets. The soap allows for an environmentally friendly way of cleansing through the use of a chemical named Butycellusolve. In this experiment two solutions, one at 0.8% and the other 1.6% per gallon tap water, were applied via a drip irrigation system. Two controls were included, a tap water only control and a fish emulsion fertilizer solution set up to achieve to normal situations of low and high nutrient loading. The experiment is being conducted to test how different surfactant loadings affect plant growth. The test is set up as a section of an independent study designed to examine the benefits of recycling gray water through a biological treatment center stationed right in your own back yard. A full report was conducted along with this test discussing gray water design and two states plumbing codes written to deal with this method of recycling gray water.

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A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF FACE-TO-FACE INSTRUTION WITH SELF INSTRUCTION UTILIZING POWER POINT AS PART OF THE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRACTION 30-HOUR CONSTRUCTION OUTREACH COURSE
Kenneth J. Tiss , AIC, CPC and Dr. George Kyanka , Faculty of Construction Management and Wood Products Engineering, SUNY, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, New York 13210.

As the construction industry progresses into the 21 st century, safety of company employees on the jobsite continues to be a very high priority. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) offers a variety of training courses to the private sector to enhance safety training and safety on the jobsite. One of these courses offered is the 30-Hour Construction Outreach course, which addresses safety training in key areas designated by OSHA as critical to the construction industry. This training is to be delivered via face-to-face instruction as currently mandated by OSHA. The author believes that self-instruction is an acceptable means to deliver this training and is in the process of evaluating the hypothesis that there will be no significant difference between face-to-face instruction and self-instruction. Over the last two years the author has used his Construction Safety class at an upper division Construction Management program to evaluate this hypothesis. Power point was selected as the vehicle to deliver the self-instruction, as it is readily available on the majority of computers in this country. The tools of evaluation involve midterm and final examinations, quizzes, and various homework assignments administered through the course as well as a student survey to evaluate their individual perceptions. The results will be of interest not only to the construction community but also to anyone teaching or considering on-line or distance learning.

Keywords: Face-to-Face Instruction, Instructional Design, Self-Instruction, OSHA 30-Hour Construction Outreach Course, Instructional Evaluation

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FUZZY GRAIN DEVELOPMENT AND CUTTING FORCES IN TENSION WOOD
Iris Vazquez-Cooz and Robert Meyer , Faculty of Construction Management and Wood Products Engineering, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

Tension wood is formed on the upper side of leaning trees or branches of hardwoods. However, it can be formed on the lower side of some species. It also forms in straight stems; for instance, Prosopis juliflora var. glandulosa forms tension wood in vertical stems. It is estimated that tension wood comprises as much as 15% of hardwood lumber. The problem to process tension wood is well known by scientists and by wood industry operators. When tension wood is machined fuzzy grain is produced, reducing quality and aesthetics of wood products. If fuzzy grain is reduced in primary wood processing like sawing, then, the lumber will have an improved appearance before other machining processes take place, which would reduce manufacturing costs. The characteristics of tension wood that lead to production of fuzzy grain have never been understood. In this research, funded by the McIntire-Stennis Cooperative Forest Research Program, we investigated fuzzy grain development and the characteristics of tension wood that make it especially prone to produce fuzzy grain. The objective was to find a solution to the fuzzy grain problem. Green and dry tension and normal wood of sugar ( Acer saccharum Marsh.) and red ( Acer rubrum L.) maple were cut, using normal wood as a control. Principal, lateral, and normal forces acting on a sawtooth mounted on a three-axis piezoelectric load cell were measured. Green tension wood requires less force to cut, apparently due to the amount and type of lignin present, and the thinner cell walls of tension wood fibers. Cutting forces increase when grain angle increases. Fuzzy grain is composed of bundles of cells that remain united, along with a few individual cells. The bundles are formed by separations of cells on the surface of the bundle at the compound middle lamella. Formation of fuzzy grain and its severity are intimately related to slope of grain. There is also a relationship between fuzzy grain development and lignification of tension wood. Tension wood fibers are not well lignified and contain less syringyl lignin, and the cells separate easier. The solution to the fuzzy grain problem can be greatly reduce or even solved when the cut is directed in such way that the sawtooth will cut the wood following the slope of grain exactly or parallel to it.


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