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Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering


Spotlight 2003 Abstracts

Table of Contents

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USE OF REGRESSION TREE TECHNIQUES FOR REMOTELY SENSED LAND COVER CLASSIFICATION
Russ Aicher, Jason Cole, Kerry Turek, Bill Stiteler and Dr. Paul Hopkins.

A HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS FOR A CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TO TREAT COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW
Amanda Baldauf, Jessica Black, Anthony Prestigiacomo, and James M. Hassett

FIELD METHODS FOR QUANTIFYING RIPARIAN VEGETATION STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION RELATIVE TO STREAM HEALTH
Emera Bridger and Dr. Ted Endreny

DIFFERENCES IN ACCURACY ASSESSMENTS RESULTING FROM VARIABILITY IN GROUND REFERENCE PROTOCOLS
Jason Cole, William Stiteler, Russ Aicher, and Paul Hopkins

DETERMINATION OF BANKFULL AND FLOOD DIMENSIONS FOR SEVERAL REACHES WITHIN THE SENECA RIVER BASIN, NY
Darin J. DeKoskie, Michael B. Higgins, and Dr. Ted Endreny

STEADY STATE ANALYSIS OF BANK AND TOE STABILITY OF ONONDAGA CREEK, NY WITH CONCRETE LINING REMOVAL
Michael B. Higgins, Darin J. DeKoskie and Dr. Ted Endreny .

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS OF PALOEFLOODS IN THE ATHABASCA VALLES REGION OF MARS
Maureen Hudson, Jessica Whisher, Jonathan Winter, and James M. Hassett

STREAM FLOW REGRESSION EQUATIONS AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO MANNING’S EQUATION
Jonathan Ladd, Peter Yuricek, and James M. Hassett

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN FOR REMEDIATION OF BRIDGE SCOUR AT POMPEY HOLLOW ROAD OVER LIMESTONE CREEK
Sean Lammerts, Andrew Johnson, and James M. Hassett

DYNAMIC SIMULATION OF STORM INDUCED GEOMORPHIC ADJUSTMENTS IN ONONDAGA
Todd McDonnell, Dr. Ted Endreny

SPATIALLY REFERENCED, RELATIONAL DATABASES FOR SCOPING RESTORATION SITES ALONG ONONDAGA CREEK IN SYRACUSE, NY
Joel R. Resig, Dr. Ted Endreny

DESIGN OF A MIGRATORY FISH PASSAGE FROM NINE MILE CREEK INTO OTISCO LAKE
Caroline Romano, Paula Christman, and James M Hassett

RAINFOREST INFLUENCE ON CLOUD COVER DENSITY AS DETERMINED BY GOES SATELLITE IMAGERY FROM THE AMAZON BASIN
Meghan Ruby, Brett Kelly, Jen Fleuret, Dr. Ted Endreny.

EXAMINATION OF TERRAIN AND LAND USE CONTROLS ON SOIL WATER CHEMISTRY IN THREE SMALL SUBURBAN WATERSHEDS
Juliaty “Ansye” Sopacua, Dr. Ted Endreny.

Abstracts

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USE OF REGRESSION TREE TECHNIQUES FOR REMOTELY SENSED LAND COVER CLASSIFICATION
Russ Aicher, Jason Cole, Kerry Turek, Bill Stiteler and Dr. Paul Hopkins, Faculty of Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

The Cubist software package coupled with Erdas Imagine provides an alternative to traditional image processing classifications. Cubist is a modified tree regression modeling software. Typical applications of Cubist include modeling housing costs, fat content in food, water flow in a river, and sea surface temperature (www.rulequest.com). This software can also be used as an add-on to Erdas Imagine to create a forest classification model and output an image. The classification output from a Cubist model provides more information than a typical supervised classification. Cubist allows multiple input datasets and builds a model that outputs a score describing the closeness of fit for each class rather than simply the presence of a class. For an application that is deriving land cover classes, a Cubist model would be developed for each class under consideration. Each pixel in each image will have a score for that class. Post processing can then combine the classes into a more traditional classification. Having all of this information also allows fuzzy classifications to be easily created. Using Cubist is a promising method of inputting many datasets into a classification and developing more detailed information about each class within the classification. This poster will show the results of both a Cubist classification and a traditional supervised classification of Huntington Wildlife Forest.

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A HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS FOR A CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TO TREAT COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW
Amanda Baldauf, Jessica Black, James M. Hassett
Faculty of Environmental and Forest Engineering, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY, 13210
Anthony Prestigiacomo
Upstate Freshwater Institute, Syracuse, NY, 13206

Constructed wetlands are a cost efficient means of improving local water quality near combined sewer overflows (CSO). Currently, a constructed wetland is being planned for a CSO on Harbor Brook, in Syracuse, NY. We created a three component model to design a channel to deliver a design flow of 135 ft 3s-1 from the CSO output to the flow distribution structure of the constructed wetland. The design consists of a trough, a chute and a retention basin. The hydraulic profile in the trough is controlled by spatially varied flow and the chute hydraulic profile is controlled by non-uniform flow. To designate control points we created free-falls at the end of the trough and the chute. To avoid backwater conditions, the minimum difference in elevation between the end of the trough and the beginning of the chute must be at least 5.3 ft. The minimum difference in the elevation between the end of the chute and the opening of the settling basin will depend on water level elevation. The design velocity is greater than 2 ft/s from 2.0 ft to the end of the trough and along the entirety of the chute. Flow velocities at or greater than 2 ft/s will cause sediments to resuspend. Thus, at design flow, only the upper section of the chute will experience sediment deposition. However, at lower flows, the flow velocity will drop below 2 ft/s throughout and thus both the chute and trough may require cleaning.

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FIELD METHODS FOR QUANTIFYING RIPARIAN VEGETATION STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION RELATIVE TO STREAM HEALTH
Emera Bridger , and Dr. Ted Endreny , SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

Onondaga Creek flows from Cortland to Onondaga County in central New York, encompassing rural and urban landscapes and protected and developed lands. An assessment of the feasibility for Creek restoration to improve fish habitat and water quality treatment of storm runoff requires an inventory riparian vegetation structure and function as it currently exists in the 100 square mile watershed. This research first identifies field methods for quantifying riparian vegetation structure and function relative to stream health and second assesses the ability to implement these methods in the field. Field implementation success is considered a function structure and function indicators, which may be absent, elusive, non-unique, or difficult measurements. A matrix of likely connections between riparian vegetation structure and function with their indicators guided this methods assessment study. Further consideration was given to methods complementary to ongoing Rosgen-based geomorphologic classification efforts for Onondaga Creek.

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DIFFERENCES IN ACCURACY ASSESSMENTS RESULTING FROM VARIABILITY IN GROUND REFERENCE PROTOCOLS
Jason Cole , William Stiteler , Russ Aicher , and Paul Hopkins ,Faculty of Environmental Resource and Forest Engineering, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

Ground reference is an important aspect of remotely-sensed land cover classification, but is often located based on practical constraints, rather than through a theoretically superior and rigorous procedure. An appropriate sampling protocol is expensive to implement, but ensures lack of bias and increases the confidence users can place in results or accuracy assessment. Using conveniently-located reference (whether it is located with ground visits or using photo-interpretation) tends to skew ground reference towards homogeneous, easily identified areas of land cover. Homogeneous reference used for training data will tend to produce more homogeneous classifications. Homogeneous reference used for accuracy assessment will tend to produce statistics that are based on areas that are easiest to classify. This poster will present results of land cover classifications that show that two seemingly valid sets of ground reference, one derived from aerial photos in easy-to-distinguish areas, the other from highly detailed ground reference plots, can return significantly different classification results.

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DETERMINATION OF BANKFULL AND FLOOD DIMENSIONS FOR SEVERAL REACHES WITHIN THE SENECA RIVER BASIN, NY
Darin J. DeKoskie , Michael B. Higgins , and Dr. Ted Endreny, ERE 596 Flood Plain Hydrology, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

A preliminary step in a stream restoration project is to determine the magnitude of design flows [L 3T-1 ], because they define channel form and pattern. This research describes implementation of several methods for determining the design flows for Onondaga Creek and other rural and urban neighboring streams in and around Syracuse, NY. Methods used to determine design flows included the HEC-FFA (Hydrologic Engineering Center – Flood Frequency Analysis) model predictions, empirically derived stage discharge relationship analysis, field site surveys and analysis, and regional regression equations for Onondaga Creek and neighboring streams. Field surveys required several days at each reach to capture cross-sections, bed slopes, thalweg profiles, water slopes, bed material inventories, and bankfull indicators. Each estimation method was imperfect, but together they provided an improved estimate of the design flows, and from these data, a synthetic estimation of the actual design flow was constructed. Site surveys were used to then determine the stream dimensions, such as width, depth, and cross-sectional area, at design flow. These data may be used to estimate channel design in restoration and examine linkages between urban and rural stream reaches.

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STEADY STATE ANALYSIS OF BANK AND TOE STABILITY OF ONONDAGA CREEK, NY WITH CONCRETE LINING REMOVAL
Michael B. Higgins , Darin J. DeKoskie , and Dr. Ted Endreny ,ERE 596 Flood Plain Hydrology, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

Bank stabilization projects for adjusting streams have required enormous amounts of money as the result of improper stream restoration design and/or implementation. This research examined whether bank shoulders and toes along Onondaga Creek in Syracuse, NY would be fail (e.g., collapse) if restoration of the Creek involved a removal of the concrete bank armoring without any additional stabilization efforts. This design was identified as a low-cost provision of needed substrate for aquatic plant and animal habitat. Computer simulation of bank stability was performed using the US Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Sediment Laboratory’s static, single plane of failure, stability models, which were obtained with agency training. Bank soil materials and depths were derived from Onondaga County soil maps and reports. Model results showed that the banks were stable without the armoring for a variety of flow conditions for steady state flow, yet separate theoretical analysis warns that the USDA static models miss dynamics of flood events.

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HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS OF PALOEFLOODS IN THE ATHABASCA VALLES REGION OF MARS
Maureen Hudson , Jessica Whisher , Jonathan Winter , and James M. Hassett, Faculty of Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

NASA officially announced in 2002 they had significant evidence of water on Mars in the form of subsurface ice. However, there is also significant evidence suggesting past flood flows on the red planet. The specific objective of this study was to estimate the flow rate of water passing through the Athabasca Valles Channel of Mars and its implications with respect to sediment transport based on channel geometry.

Using channel geometry obtained by the Mars Rover, Mars Orbiting Camera, and the Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter experiments, a profile of the Athabasca Channel including 21 cross-sections was developed and transferred to Autodesk Land Desktop. A flow estimate derived from the momentum equation and Darcy-Weisbach equation with the assumption of uniform flow was used to estimate the flow in Athabasca. The results of this study were then compared to those obtained by Burr et al (University of Arizona), who used a modified form of the venerable Manning’s equation to estimate flows in the same channel. Burr et al. calculated a flow rate of approximately 2 million cubic meters per second (m 3/s) (Burr et al 2002).

We generated a flow estimate of 1.40 x 10 8m3/s, approximately two orders of magnitude greater than the flow of 2 x 10 6m3/s calculated by Devon Burr et al. The reason for the disparity in flow estimates is the subject of further investigations.

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STREAM FLOW REGRESSION EQUATIONS AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO MANNING’S EQUATION
Jonathan Ladd , Peter Yuricek , and James M. Hassett ,Faculty of Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

Flow in open channels is a function of slope, geometry and channel roughness. Manning’s equation, introduced in the 1890s, incorporates an n value to parameterize channel roughness. This parameter has proven problematic in that even trained observers produce estimates of channel roughness that can differ by 10 to 15%. Recently, a series of regression-based equations for open channel flow have been proposed. These equations include terms for channel slope and geometry but do not incorporate estimates for channel roughness. We tested the validity of the regression equations by taking a series of stream flow measurements in engineered channels in the Syracuse area and then comparing our measured stream flows to estimates generated from Manning’s equation and the regression equations. Our results suggest that the regression equations for open channel flow are a reasonable alternative to the venerable Manning’s equation; however, the measurement of water surface slope represents the largest source of uncertainty in the regression equations.

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ANALYSIS AND DESIGN FOR REMEDIATION OF BRIDGE SCOUR AT POMPEY HOLLOW ROAD OVER LIMESTONE CREEK
Sean Lammerts , Andrew Johnson , and James M. Hassett, Faculty of Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

The Schoharie Creek Bridge failure in 1987 prompted the development of numerous methods for evaluating potential scour at bridge foundations. We examined the potential for bridge scour at a site in Onondaga County. The New York State Department of Transportation has identified the bridge on Pompey Hollow Road over Limestone Creek (BIN #3312590) as susceptible to failure due to bridge pier scour. Scour hazard was investigated using the Integrated Approach. The Integrated Approach is based on empirical relations, termed K-factors. These account for the effects on scour depth of flow, foundation size, flow intensity sediment characteristics, foundation type, shape, alignment, and approach channel geometry. In general, the bridge site is at risk with respect to scour hazard. Design alternatives to reduce the scour hazard are presented.

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DYNAMIC SIMULATION OF STORM INDUCED GEOMORPHIC ADJUSTMENTS IN ONONDAGA
Todd McDonnell , and Dr. Ted Endreny , ERE 596 Flood Plain Hydrology, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

This research provides needed information in the area of fluvial geomorphology to an on-going restoration study on Onondaga Creek, NY. CONCEPTS, a unsteady dynamic flow and bank stability model developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), was used to simulate channel evolution and sediment transport in the Creek without concrete bank armoring and with varying bank slopes. Currently, the stream banks are lined with concrete to prevent erosion. The model was run with storm conditions corresponding to 2, 10 and 50-year events with the concrete lining removed to expose the bank soils. As expected, a high degree of erosion was generated during these events. The model was then used to explore the effectiveness of bank slope relaxation on reducing the erosional effects of these various storms. The stream responded positively by showing decreased sediment yields and less bank scour under the modified conditions. However, the degree of success was minimal and it is recommended that further stabilization techniques such as densely vegetated banks should be explored in conjunction with slope modification.

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SPATIALLY REFERENCED, RELATIONAL DATABASES FOR SCOPING RESTORATION SITES ALONG ONONDAGA CREEK IN SYRACUSE, NY
Joel R. Resig , and Dr. Ted Endreny , ERE 596 Flood Plain Hydrology, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

Data management and querying tools provide vital information in the analysis of urban waterways and their contributing watersheds. This research implements automated querying of Federal and municipal, spatially referenced, environmental quality databases for Onondaga Creek in Syracuse, NY to aid in feasibility assessment for channel restoration projects.

The constructed tool integrates MS Access, FoxPro, Excel, and ESRI GIS applications and rapidly queries and publishes from four primary datasets including, Toxic Releases Inventory, Permit Control System, Hazardous Waste Handling Sites, and Water Quality Data. Graphs of 1997-2002 Onondaga Creek water quality changes between Dorwin Avenue monitoring station (which integrates flow from a relatively rural watershed) and Spencer Street monitoring station (which is downstream of the urban center), show the effects a dense urban environment on the water quality and indicate potential benefits from restoration efforts. Further, Brownfield locations along the Creek highlight constraints on restoration sites should the project wish to avoid unearthing contaminants. Industrial and municipal contaminants along urban waterways can represent an unwanted, unknown, and spatially disperse, pollutant load for restoration scientists and engineers. The scour and release of the contaminated bank and bed materials contribute greatly to the decline of water quality. The spatially referenced, data management and querying tool created in this research assisted in the Onondaga Creek restoration site selection.

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DESIGN OF A MIGRATORY FISH PASSAGE FROM NINE MILE CREEK INTO OTISCO LAKE
Caroline Romano , Paula Christman , and James M Hassett ,Faculty of Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

The habitats of migratory fishes have been disturbed by dams, hydropower plants, and control gates. In central New York, Otisco Lake and its surrounding tributaries are potential habitats for anadromous fish, in particular, Coho and Chinook salmon. An existing dam is located at the north end of the lake through which water flows into Nine Mile Creek. A fish passage is necessary at the Otisco Lake dam if the area is to sustain healthy salmon populations. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the feasibility of constructing a fish passage on Nine Mile Creek to allow salmon to pass to and from there to Otisco Lake.

Fish biology and life cycle, flow measurements, and structural implications all affect the design of a fish passage. Flow data, obtained from the Onondaga County Water Authority, provide the hydrologic data for the design. The fish passage is sized to allow spawning salmon to pass. The planning process and the final design choice are described in this feasibility investigation.

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RAINFOREST INFLUENCE ON CLOUD COVER DENSITY AS DETERMINED BY GOES SATELLITE IMAGERY FROM THE AMAZON BASIN
Meghan Ruby , Brett Kelly , Jen Fleuret , and Dr. Ted Endreny .FOR 338 Meteorology Course, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

This research paper examines the cloud system over a major section of the Amazon rainforest located in South America. Clouds develop when warm air above a region rises, meets and mixes with cooler air higher in the atmosphere, and condenses around a condensation nucleus, such as a dust or sand particle. The more water vapor there is in the air, the more saturated the air is, and the more likely it is that clouds will form. It was thought that higher percent cloud cover would be observed during the day time than the nighttime based on the fact that transpiration only occurs during the day. More water vapor would therefore be produced during the daylight hours, thus more clouds would be likely to form. Using a point grid system, percent cloud cover was determined from November 1 st through 21 st 2002 in a region from Latitude 40°E to88°W and Longitude 7°N to 25°S. It was found that the null hypothesis was valid, that is, lower percent cloud cover and lower cloud density were present during the day than during the night. This can be attributed to the cooling of the air at night, or the wind pushing the clouds further away from the rainforest, and possibly other factors that have not been thought of.

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EXAMINATION OF TERRAIN AND LAND USE CONTROLS ON SOIL WATER CHEMISTRY IN THREE SMALL SUBURBAN WATERSHEDS
Juliaty “Ansye” Sopacua , and Dr. Ted Endreny , SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210.

Suburban development in the New York City Croton water supply area may alter flowpaths and trigger the transport of pollutants that threaten drinking water quality. This research examines terrain and land use controls on 10 months of biweekly soil water chemistry data collected during 2001-2002 from several lysimeters, piezometers, and wells clustered in distinct topographic locations throughout three small (< 1 km 2) watersheds that represent no development (WPR), low density development (PWS) and medium density development (B28) in the Croton water supply area. Two meter gridded terrain maps together with soil maps and low-altitude aerial photographs of land use (scale 1-inch to 200-feet) were used to delineate contributing area specific attributes of road length, housing density, septic system counts, soil types, etc. for each instrument-cluster of soil instruments. While soil chemistry data are influenced by subsurface and surface flow, this analysis focuses on surface controls. The statistical analysis included SAS multiple regression and extensive ArcGIS data manipulation. Soil chemistry data vary both between clusters and between watersheds, and physical explanations have been identified using terrain and land use analysis.


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