The Ocean Is Losing Its Breath
ESF scientist joins team in revealing dangers and solutions
Posted January 2018
The story is based a news release prepared by the Smithsonian Institution.
In the past 50 years, the amount of water in the open ocean with zero oxygen has gone up more than fourfold. In coastal water bodies, including estuaries and seas, low-oxygen sites have increased more than 10-fold since 1950. Scientists expect oxygen to continue dropping even outside these zones as Earth warms. To halt the decline, the world needs to rein in both climate change and nutrient pollution, an international team of scientists asserted in a new paper published in Science.
"Oxygen is fundamental to life in the oceans," said Denise Breitburg, lead author and marine ecologist with the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center. "The decline in ocean oxygen ranks among the most serious effects of human activities on the Earth's environment."
The study came from a team of scientists from GO2NE (Global Ocean Oxygen Network), a new working group created in 2016 by the United Nation's Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission. The review paper is the first to take such a sweeping look at the causes, consequences and solutions to low oxygen worldwide, in both the open ocean and coastal waters. The article highlights the biggest dangers to the ocean and society, and what it will take to keep Earth's waters healthy and productive.
The paper was published online today (Jan.4) and will appear in the printed magazine Jan. 5.
One of the team members is Karin Limburg, a fisheries ecologist at ESF.
"Just when you thought you knew everything about global warming's effects, you find out about things like this," Limburg said. "Based on the physical properties of water, all sorts of chemical reactions happen when the temperature changes. Low oxygen is a well-known phenomenon but we see clearly that it is being exacerbated by climate change."
Limburg's role in the project was to assess the ecosystem services - ecological processes that support humanity, either directly or indirectly - that are at risk from ocean deoxygenation.
This assessment includes looking at not only changes in fisheries production, but also the health impacts, biodiversity losses and changes in nutrient cycles that support healthy ecosystems. Another factor is the way degraded habitat can change tourism opportunities, as in the case of declining coral reefs.
Limburg said the findings highlight the need to reduce greenhouse gases, primarily carbon dioxide, and place more stringent limits on nutrient discharges."
"Approximately half of the oxygen on Earth comes from the ocean," said Vladimir Ryabinin, executive secretary of the International Oceanographic Commission that formed the GO2NE group. "However, combined effects of nutrient loading and climate change are greatly increasing the number and size of 'dead zones' in the open ocean and coastal waters, where oxygen is too low to support most marine life."
In areas traditionally called "dead zones," like those in Chesapeake Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, oxygen plummets to levels so low many animals suffocate and die. As fish avoid these zones, their habitats shrink and they become more vulnerable to predators or fishing. But the problem goes far beyond "dead zones," the authors point out. Even smaller oxygen declines can stunt growth in animals, hinder reproduction and lead to disease or even death. Low oxygen also can trigger the release of dangerous chemicals such as nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas up to 300 times more powerful than carbon dioxide, and toxic hydrogen sulfide. While some animals can thrive in dead zones, overall biodiversity falls.
Climate change is the key culprit in the open ocean. Warming surface waters make it harder for oxygen to reach the ocean interior. Furthermore, as the ocean as a whole gets warmer, it holds less oxygen. In coastal waters, excess nutrient pollution from land creates algal blooms, which drain oxygen as they die and decompose. In an unfortunate twist, animals also need more oxygen in warmer waters, even as it is disappearing.
People's livelihoods are also on the line, the scientists reported, especially in developing nations. Smaller, artisanal fisheries may be unable to relocate when low oxygen destroys their harvests or forces fish to move elsewhere. In the Philippines, fish kills in a single town's aquaculture pens cost more than $10 million. Coral reefs, a key tourism attraction in many countries, also can waste away without enough oxygen.
"It's a tremendous loss to all the support services that rely on recreation and tourism, hotels and restaurants and taxi drivers and everything else," said Lisa Levin, a co-author and marine biologist with the University of California, San Diego. "The reverberations of unhealthy ecosystems in the ocean can be extensive."
Some popular fisheries could benefit, at least in the short term. Nutrient pollution can stimulate production of food for fish. In addition, when fish are forced to crowd to escape low oxygen, they can become easier to catch. But in the long run, this could result in overfishing and damage to the economy.
Winning the War: A Three-Pronged Approach
To keep low oxygen in check, the scientists said the world needs to take on the issue from three angles:
- Address the causes: nutrient pollution and climate change. While neither issue is simple or easy, the steps needed to win can benefit people as well as the environment. Better septic systems and sanitation can protect human health and keep pollution out of the water. Cutting fossil fuel emissions not only cuts greenhouse gases and fights climate change, but also slashes dangerous air pollutants like mercury.
- Protect vulnerable marine life. With some low oxygen unavoidable, it is crucial to protect at-risk fisheries from further stress. According to the GO2NE team, this could mean creating marine protected areas or no-catch zones in areas animals use to escape low oxygen, or switching to fish that are not as threatened by falling oxygen levels.
- Improve low-oxygen tracking worldwide. Scientists have a decent grasp of how much oxygen the ocean could lose in the future, but they do not know exactly where those low-oxygen zones will be. Enhanced monitoring, especially in developing countries, and numerical models will help pinpoint which places are most at risk and determine the most effective solutions.
"This is a problem we can solve," Breitburg said. "Halting climate change requires a global effort, but even local actions can help with nutrient-driven oxygen decline." As proof Breitburg points to the ongoing recovery of Chesapeake Bay, where nitrogen pollution has dropped 24 percent since its peak thanks to better sewage treatment, better farming practices and successful laws like the Clean Air Act. While some low-oxygen zones persist, the area of the Chesapeake with zero oxygen has almost disappeared. "Tackling climate change may seem more daunting," she added, "but doing it is critical for stemming the decline of oxygen in our oceans, and for nearly every aspect of life on our planet."
ESF Faculty Recognized for Excellence and Achievement
- ESF Lists Top 10 New Species for 2018New to science: plants, animals and microbes that have ‘found a way to survive against the odds’
- Researchers Find Whole Genome Duplication Has Occurred Many Times during Evolution of InsectsESF scientist joins team in publishing findings
- Nomura Group Recognized for Top ArticleTop 100 most-read microbiology papers in Scientific Reports for 2017
- ESF Team among Finalists for $2.5M Canals Competition NPYA celebrates finalists at ESF event
- ESF Professor's New Book Looks at What Makes Something 'Alive'Dr. Scott Turner argues humans must explore living nature as purposeful, driven by desire
- Trees Cope with Harsh Conditions, Surprising Researchers Study in Australia reveals ability to 'wait out the heat'
- ERE Professor Focuses Sabbatical on GIS TechnologyLindi Quackenbush to add Google Earth Engine to advanced remote-sensing course
- Dr. Jack Manno, Cindy Squillace Honored with Racial Justice AwardRetired faculty member earns award from Interfaith Works
- The Ocean Is Losing Its BreathESF scientist joins team in revealing dangers and solutions
- Synthetic Protein Could Be Key in Battle against DiseaseESF scientists contribute to new publication
- Dr. James Gibbs Named SUNY Distinguished ProfessorESF professor earns highest faculty rank
- ‘Extinct’ Floreana Tortoise Species Could Return to Galapagos ESF professor contributes to restoration program
- NSF Grant Funds ESF Ecologist’s Gypsy Moth ResearchDr. Dylan Parry investigates spread of invasive species
- Martin Hogue Receives Teaching AwardCited for dedication to students, professionalism
- Dr. John Farrell Named Exemplary Researcher at ESFDirector of Thousand Islands Biological Station recognized for aquatic research
- ESF Staff, Faculty Honored by Chancellor Commitment to students, professionalism recognized
- ESF Professor Co-authors Declaration to Support Indigenous ScienceStatement endorsed by over 1500 indigenous scientists and allies
- Farther from the Forest: ‘Eye-opening’ Study Shows Rural U.S. Loses Forests Faster than CitiesStudy overturns conventional wisdom about forest loss
- ESF Professor Awarded Research GrantInnovations in green building construction to be studied
- Former ESF President Whaley Honored by NY Bar AssociationState bar group bestows Environmental Law Section award
- ESF Chemistry Professor Appointed VP for ResearchChristopher Nomura aims to increase collaboration
- Dr. Stewart Diemont Receives Teaching AwardCited for creativity, contributions to profession
- ESF Professor Works to Build Community at COP21Dr. Jack Manno runs workshops at ‘Climate Generations’
- Malmsheimer Shares Sustainability Expertise with European PolicymakersFaculty member meets with leaders in Brussels, London
- Oneida Lake Subject of New BookProfessor Donald Stewart co-edits book on lake’s history, ecology
- Professor’s Book Ranks as ‘Outstanding Academic Title’Jack Manno, co-editors address the end of fossil fuels
- Professional Society Honors ESF Landscape ArchitectRichard Hawks named Distinguished Senior Practitioner, Academic Practice
- Dr. Georgios Mountrakis Honored as Exemplary ResearcherResearcher presents Adaptive Peaks Seminar
- Endreny Receives Fulbright Award as Distinguished Chair in ItalyERE chair to serve semester at Parthenope University in Naples
- ESF Faculty, Staff Honored by SUNY ChancellorCommitment to students, professionalism recognized
- ESF Forest Manager Honored by SAFBruce Breitmeyer named Fellow
- Dr. Robert MalmsheimerESF College Foundation Award for Exceptional Achievement in Teaching
- Dr. Kimberly SchulzExemplary Researcher
- Dr. Christopher NomuraExemplary Researcher
- Dr. Lindi QuackenbushESF College Foundation Award for Exceptional Achievement in Teaching winner
- Ken TissESF College Foundation Award for Exceptional Achievement in Teaching winner
- Greg BoyerExemplary Researcher, Chemistry
- George CurryKennedy Distinguished Faculty Chair in Landscape Architecture
- Dr. Robin KimmererDirector, ESF Center for Native Peoples
- Dr. James GibbsDistinguished teacher, honored researcher
- Dr. David KieberExemplary Researcher, Environmental Chemistry