Behrend, D.F. 1965. Notes on field immobilization of white-tailed deer with nicotine. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 29(4):889-890.

Abstract: Field-capture operations utilizing nicotine alkaloid delivered by the Cap-Chur gun were conducted in a forested area of the central Adirondack Mountains of northern New York during the summer of 1964. Of 37 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) known to have been hit, 26 were recovered, but only 18 survived. Mortality appeared more closely related to the region of the animal penetrated by the syringe than to dosage per pound of body weight. thus, 28 hits in solid muscle resulted in but 3 deaths (10.7%), while 5 of 8 animals hit in other regions died (62.5%). Success of live capture was far greater during hours of darkness than daylight, recoveries being 69 and 33 %, respectively. This difference appeared to be directly attributable to differences in flight behavior, deer being shot at night fleeing initially for a much shorter distance than those shot in daylight.