Foster, N.W., M.J. Mitchell, I.K. Morrison and J.P. Shepard. 1992. Cycling of acid and base cations in deciduous stand of Huntington Forest, New York, and Turkey Lakes, Ontario. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 22:167-174.

Abstract: Annual nutrient fluxes within two forests exposed to acidic deposition were compared for a 1-year period. Calcium (Ca2+) was the dominant cation in throughfall and soil solutions from tolerant hardwood dominated Spodosols (Podzols) at both Huntington Forest (HF), New York, and the Turkey Lakes watershed (TLW), Ontario. There was a net annual export of Ca2+ and Mg2+ from the TLW soil, whereas base cation inputs in precipitation equaled outputs at HF. In 1986, leaching losses of base cations were five times greater at TLW than at HF. A higher percentage of the base cation reserves was leached from the soil at TLW (5%) than at HF (1%). Relative to throughfall, aluminum concentrations increased in forest-floor and miner-soil solutions, especially at HF. The TLW soil appears more sensitive to soil acidification. Deposited atmospheric acidity, however, was small in comparison with native soil acidity (total and exchangeable) and the reserves of base cations in each soil. soil acidity and base saturation, therefore, are likely only to change slowly.