Krull, J.N. 1970. Aquatic plant-macroinvertebrate association and waterfowl. Journal of Wildlife Management, 34(4):707-718.

Abstract: An ecological study was conducted to determine the association of macroinvertebrates with 12 species of submerged aquatic plants common in central New York. The abundance and kind of animals associated with each plant species and with their substrates were determined. An Ekman dredge was used in obtaining the samples, which totaled 543 for the plants and 181 for the combined plant-substrate samples. These were taken in the shallows of five aquatic areas during the period of April-October, 1966. A total of 114 different taxonomic categories of animals was collected. Some plants harbored a larger biomass, greater numbers, and a greater taxonomic diversity than other hydrophytes. Three plant species harbored nearly 60% of the animal species found. Macroinvertebrates appeared to be many times more abundant in vegetated areas than in non-vegetated areas. On the average, 1 g of animal life was found associated with 100 g of plant material. Hydrophytes believed to be poor waterfowl food plants almost assuredly are indirectly important to waterfowl production, because they harbor large quantities of macroinvertebrates which furnish a source of animal protein.