Tierson, W.C., E.F. Patric and D.F. Behrend. 1966. Influence of white-tailed deer on the logged northern hardwood forest. Journal of Forestry, 64(12):801-805.

Reprinted from the Journal of Forestry 64(12):801-805, published by the Society of American Foresters, 5400 Grosvenor Lane, Bethesda, MD 20814-2198. Not for further reproduction.

Abstract: Two deer exclosures erected in a mature northern hardwood forest type in the central Adirondack Mountains have been evaluated since 1939. In 1955 one of these exclosures was logged and vegetation sampled annually thereafter. Differences in vegetation were visually noticeable at the end of the first growing season. Data collected from samples could not demonstrate these differences to be significant from a management viewpoint. A modified sampling plan was inaugurated in 1963 which provided data that substantiated the visual impression. An analysis of stem 3 feet and over in height showed the white-tailed deer to be a limiting factor in the height growth of many hardwood tree species and woody shrubs.