e s f home link - e s f college of environmental science and forestry
e s f home link - e s f college of environmental science and forestry

Subject to Change

The current ESF Catalog is online only, and is updated as needed throughout the year. To view the version officially associated with a particular year of entry to the College, please refer to the appropriate catalog of record.

Department of Environmental Biology

Stephen Teale, Interim Chair
242 Illick Hall
315-470-6760
315-470-6934
(fax)

Joshep working in the lab

The critical importance of natural resources and environmental quality in society demands that aspiring biologists understand natural ecosystems and learn to solve problems effectively. The Department of Environmental Biology (EB) is committed to ensuring these educational outcomes.

The department offers a dynamic array of opportunities in biology via course work enriched by an active program of research. Through a suite of electives in addition to a required core, undergraduate students may customize their studies in a particular field of interest. Graduate students may pursue master's or doctoral degrees within several areas of study.

Undergraduate Programs

EB offers six undergraduate majors. Environmental Biology is the broadest major and the degree program to which most students apply. The other six are specialized and are recommended for students with more focused educational goals. They are Aquatic and Fisheries Science, Biotechnology, eConservation Biology, Forest Health, and Wildlife Science. For the first year or two the requirements of these programs are similar to those of Environmental Biology and internal transfer among them is straightforward.

Field Study and Training

A hallmark of the EB curriculum is its emphasis on field study and training. All majors offered by the Department of Environmental Biology are hands-on programs that emphasize laboratory and field experience in addition to classroom studies. To this end, every student in each major except Biotechnology is required to complete at least six credit-hours of approved field-based instruction in biology. Three of these six credits are associated with a required core course, EFB 202 (Ecological Monitoring and Biodiversity Assessment), which is offered each summer at the Cranberry Lake Biological Station (CLBS) in the Adirondack Mountains. We recommend students enroll in EFB 202 during the summer between freshman and sophomore years, or as early as possible if you are a transfer student.

The remaining three credit hours of Field Experience are elective and can be satisfied in multiple ways. The following lists identify recent course offerings that satisfy the EB field elective requirement. Be aware that some of these courses may not be offered every year.

Courses offered at CLBS during summer session:

  • Field Ethnobotany (EFB337)
  • Fungal Diversity and Ecology (EFB342)
  • Field Herpetology (EFB384)
  • Adirondack Fishes (EFB388)
  • Wildlife Techniques (EFB496)
  • Ecology of Adirondack Aquatic Ecosystems (EFB496)
  • Wetland Plants and Communities of the Adirondacks (EFB496)
  • Ecology of Adirondack Insects (EFB496)

Courses offered at the Adirondack Ecological Center and Ranger School:

  • Mammalian Winter Ecology (EFB484)
  • Forest Technology (FTC204/210/211/236)

Courses offered during Maymester at the Syracuse or regional campuses:

  • Forest Health Monitoring (EFB439)
  • Field Ornithology (EFB496)
  • Flora of Central New York (EFB496)
  • Interpreting Field Biology (EFB500)

Other courses offered by ESF faculty:

  • Forest Health Senior Synthesis (EFB425)
  • Ecosystem Restoration Design (EFB434, 4-cr)
  • Periodic field trips courses (EFB500) to locations such as Costa Rica, Ireland, Russia, New Zealand, Australia
  • Tropical Ecology (EFB 523)
  • Limnology Practicum (EFB525 - 2 cr)
  • Ecological Engineering in the Tropics (ERE311)

    Field courses, approved by petition, from another accredited university, including but not limited to the following affiliated programs:
  • SEA Semester (through Boston University) Note: 'Semester at Sea' is different than 'SEA Semester.' EFB WILL NOT ACCEPT any 'Semester at Sea' courses for upper-division biology or field credits.
  • The School for Field Studies (through University of Minnesota)
  • Wildlands Studies (through California State University Monterey Bay)

    An independent research project (EFB 498) or internship (EFB 420) that has received prior departmental approval via petition, and that meets the following departmental criteria.
  • At least 50% of student effort (including contact time with instructor and self-directed study) must be conducted in the field (out-of-classroom, out-of-laboratory, out-of-clinic, out-of-captivity).
  • Student must demonstrate learning gains in organismal biology, ecological theory, and/or application of field methodologies to study populations, ecological communities or ecosystem processes.
  • Students must complete a research or professional product for evaluation.
  • 40 hours of effort will garner 1 academic credit-hour.

Bachelor of Science in Aquatic and Fisheries Science

Aquatic and fisheries science is the study of aquatic ecosystems to increase scientific understanding and to apply this knowledge to their management and conservation, thereby sustaining them for multiple uses.

Aquatic ecosystems are complex and found within myriad wetlands, streams, lakes, estuaries, and oceans that support life on earth. Professional aquatic scientists and managers work to conserve and restore biodiversity, habitats, and ecological function while supporting services including fisheries, water resources, transportation, energy, recreation and human connections to nature. Career opportunities for students with a B.S. in aquatic and fisheries science include fisheries science, wetland science, limnology, marine biology and oceanography, and numerous conservation-related fields. Typical employment is with federal and state agencies, universities, research institutions, and management authorities, private consulting firms and non-governmental organizations, both local, regional, and international.

Required Courses

CourseCodes*Credits
APM 105Survey of Calculus and Its Applications I G4
APM 391Introduction to Probability and Statistics G3
EFB 101General Biology I: Organismal Biology and EcologyG3
EFB 102General Biology I LaboratoryG1
EFB 103General Biology II: Cell Biology and Genetics G3
EFB 104General Biology II Laboratory G1
EFB 120The Global Environment and the Evolution of Human Society G3
EFB 132Orientation Seminar: Environmental and Forest Biology 1
EFB 202Ecological Monitoring and Biodiversity Assessment 3
EFB 210Diversity of Life I 3
EFB 211Diversity of Life II 3
EFB 307Principles of Genetics 3
EFB 308Principles of Genetics Laboratory 1
EFB 311Principles of Evolution 3
EFB 320 General Ecology 4
EFB 325 Cell Biology 3
EFB 424Limnology: Study of Inland Waters 3
EFB 486Ichthyology 3
EFB 492Senior Synthesis in Aquatic and Fisheries Science 1
EWP 190Writing and the Environment G3
EWP 290Research Writing and HumanitiesG3
FCH 150General Chemistry I G3
FCH 151General Chemistry Laboratory I G1
FCH 152General Chemistry II G3
FCH 153General Chemistry Laboratory II G1
FCH 210Elements of Organic Chemistry 4
FOR 207Introduction to Economics G3
PHY 101Major Concepts of Physics I 4
PHY 102
OR
FCH 223
AND
FCH 224
OR
APM 106
Major Concepts of Physics II

Organic Chemistry II

Organic Chemistry Laboratory II

Survey of Calculus and Its Applications II







4

3

1

4

Electives

Course Codes* Credits
General Education Course in two of the following categories: American History, The Arts, Western Civilization, Other World Civilizations, Foreign Language G 6
Directed Electives 27
Open Electives 15
Directed Electives

To ensure both strength and breadth of knowledge, 27 elective credit hours must be obtained through courses in the following subject areas (S=spring semester, F=fall semester).

  • Field Experience Elective
    At least three elective credits must come from an approved field course in biology (this is in addition to the core field course, EFB 202). These credits may be obtained through an elective course at our Cranberry Lake Biological Station, an approved internship (EFB 420) or field trip course (EFB 500). Winter Mammalian Ecology (EFB 484) and Tropical Ecology (EFB 523) meet this requirement, as can approved field courses from other institutions.
  • Structure and Function
    At least 3 credit hours must be in the subject area of organism-level physiology, anatomy, or development. The list of allowable courses below may vary slightly from year to year.
    • EFB 385—Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy (4 cr.) S
    • EFB 427—Plant Anatomy and Development (3 cr.) F
    • EFB 462—Animal Physiology: Environmental and Ecological (4 cr.) F
    • EFB 530—Plant Physiology (3 cr.) S
    • EFB 570—Insect Physiology (3 cr.) S
    • BIO 447—Immunology (3 cr.) S
    • BIO 503—Developmental Biology (3 cr.) S
  • Organismal Diversity
    To encourage breadth in organism-level biology, students must complete (in addition to the core requirement of EFB  486 or EFB 388) at least 3 credit hours in each of the following two categories:
    • 1. Plants and Microbes:
      • EFB 303—Introductory Environmental Microbiology (4 cr.) F
      • EFB 326—Plant Evolution, Diversification and Conservation (3 cr.) S
      • EFB 336—Dendrology (3 cr.) F
      • EFB 337 - Field Ethnobotany (3 cr.) CLBS
      • EFB 340—Forest and Shade Tree Pathology (3 cr.) S
      • EFB 428—Mycorrhizal Ecology (3 cr) F even years
      • EFB 435—Flowering Plants: Diversity, Evolution, and Systematics (3 cr.) F
      • EFB 440—Mycology (3 cr.) F
      • EFB 446—Ecology of Mosses (3 cr.) S
      • EFB 496 - Wetland Plants & Communities of Adirondacks (3 cr.) CLBS
      • EFB 496 - Flora of Central NY (3 cr.) Maymester
    • 2. Invertebrate and Vertebrate Animals:
      • EFB 351—Forest Entomology (3 cr.) F, even years
      • EFB 352—Entomology (3 cr.) F, odd years
      • EFB 355—Invertebrate Zoology (4 cr.) S
      • EFB 388—Ecology of Adirondack Fishes (3 cr.) CLBS
      • EFB 453—Parasitology (3 cr.) F
      • EFB 482—Ornithology (4 cr.) S
      • EFB 483—Mammal Diversity (4 cr.) F
      • EFB 485—Herpetology (3 cr.) F
      • EFB 554—Aquatic Entomology (3 cr.) F
      • EFB 566 - Systematic Entomology (3 cr.) S, even years
  • Physical/Chemical Environment
    To encourage understanding and familiarity with the aquatic habitat, students must complete at least 3 credit hours from one of the following courses:
    • EFB 415—Ecological Biogeochemistry (3 cr.) F
    • EST 231—Environmental Geology (3 cr.) S
    • FCH 510—Environmental Chemistry I (3 cr.) S
    • FCH 515—Methods of Environmental Chemical Analysis (3 cr.) F
    • FOR 338—Meteorology (3 cr.) S
    • FOR 340—Watershed Hydrology (3 cr.) S
    • FOR 345—Introduction to Soils (3 cr.) F
    • EAR 101—Dynamic Earth (3 cr.) F
    • EAR 105—Earth Science (3 cr.) S
  • Environmental Systems Science
    To further promote understanding of the systems approach to aquatic ecosystems and an integration of environmental and biological factors, students must complete at least 3 credit hours from one of the following courses.
    • EFB 423—Marine Ecology (4 cr.) S, even years
    • EFB 516—Ecosystems (3 cr.) S
    • EFB 518—Systems Ecology (4 cr.) F
    • EFB 523—Tropical Ecology (3 cr.) S
    • EFB 542—Freshwater Wetland Ecosystems (3 cr.) S
    • ERE 275—Ecological Engineering  I (3 cr.) S
  • Management
    At least 3 credit hours in resource or ecosystem management must be obtained through a course in the following list.
    • EFB 487—Fisheries Science and Management (3 cr.) F
    • EFB 390—Wildlife Ecology and Management (4 cr.) F
    • FOR 360—Principles of Management (3 cr.) F
    • FOR 372—Fundamentals of Outdoor Rec. (3 cr.) F,S
    • FOR 442—Watershed Ecology & Management (3 cr.) F 
  • Analytical Tools
    To increase the breadth of practical skills and knowledge students must complete at least 3 credit hours, obtained through one of the following courses:
    • BTC 401—Molecular Biology Techniques (3 cr.) F
    • EFB 488—Fisheries Science Practicum (1 cr.) F
    • EFB 519—Geographic Modeling (3 cr.) S
    • EFB 525—Limnology Practicum (2 cr.) F
    • ERE 445—Hydrological Modeling (3 cr.) F
    • ESF 300—Introduction to Geospatial Information Technologies (3 cr.) F,S
  • Communications
    Students must complete at least 3 credit hours from one of the following communication or interpretation courses.
    • EFB 312—Introduction to Personal Environmental Interpretation Methods (3 cr.) F
    • EWP 220—Public Presentation Skills for Environmental Professionals (3 cr.) F,S
    • EWP 407—Writing for Environmental and Science Professionals (3 cr.) F

Total Minimum Credits For Degree: 126

Bachelor of Science in Biotechnology

What is Biotechnology?

Biotechnology is the application of biological organisms, cells, or molecules to produce a product or service for the betterment of humankind. This area of study includes aspects of molecular biology, microbiology, cell biology, biochemistry, and genetic engineering, among other related disciplines.

The Biotechnology Curriculum

The curriculum builds on introductory courses in the sciences including biology, chemistry, calculus, and physics, creating a strong foundation for more advanced upper-level courses. This degree program prepares students to use molecular and biochemical approaches to tackle environmental, natural resource, agricultural, or medical questions, and provides sufficient breadth for students interested in careers veterinary and human medicine. Students who complete this major will be qualified to enter the growing biotechnology job market or continue their studies in graduate or professional school.

The Biotechnology curriculum requires a minimum of 126 total credits. The core requirements are listed in the typical schedule. There are also 12 credits of directed electives that can be chosen from a list of approved courses. Twenty open elective credits can be selected depending on a student's individual interests. There are also many courses offered at Syracuse University or the SUNY Upstate Medical University that could be used to fill these electives and open electives.

Required Courses

CourseCodes*Credits
APM 105Survey of Calculus and Its Applications I G4
APM 106Survey of Calculus and Its Applications II 4
APM 391Introduction to Probability and Statistics G3
BTC 132Orientation Seminar 1
BTC 401Molecular Biology Techniques 4
BTC 420
OR
BTC 498
Internship in Biotechnology

Research Problems in Biotechnology



1 - 5

1 - 9
BTC 497Research Design and Professional Development 1
BTC 499Senior Project Synthesis 1
EFB 101General Biology I: Organismal Biology and EcologyG3
EFB 102General Biology I LaboratoryG1
EFB 103General Biology II: Cell Biology and Genetics G3
EFB 104General Biology II Laboratory G1
EFB 210
OR
EFB 211
Diversity of Life I

Diversity of Life II



3

3
EFB 303Introductory Environmental Microbiology 4
EFB 307Principles of Genetics 3
EFB 308Principles of Genetics Laboratory 1
EFB 320 General Ecology 4
EFB 325 Cell Biology 3
EWP 190Writing and the Environment G3
EWP 290Research Writing and HumanitiesG3
FCH 150General Chemistry I G3
FCH 151General Chemistry Laboratory I G1
FCH 152General Chemistry II G3
FCH 153General Chemistry Laboratory II G1
FCH 221Organic Chemistry I 3
FCH 222Organic Chemistry Laboratory I 1
FCH 223Organic Chemistry II 3
FCH 224Organic Chemistry Laboratory II 1
FCH 430Biochemistry I 3
FCH 432Biochemistry II 3
PHY 101Major Concepts of Physics I 4
PHY 102Major Concepts of Physics II 4

NOTE: BTC 420 (Internship in Biotechnology) is typically done in the summer.

NOTE: 5 credits of BTC 498 or BTC 420 are required.

Electives

Course Codes* Credits
General Education Course in three of the following categories: American History, The Arts, Western Civilization, Other World Civilizations, Social Science, Foreign Language G 9
Directed Electives 12
Open Electives 20
Directed Electives - Biotechnology

A minimum of 12 credits of directed elective courses required. New biotechnology related courses not currently on the list may also fulfill this requirement with permission of your advisor.

Although any combination of courses below may satisfy the minimum 12 credits required, the following list has been categorized into 4 of the most common subject areas of interest to BTC students, as well as those courses that would be suitable for multiple subject areas of interest. These groupings of elective courses are guidelines. Probably no two students in the biotechnology program have exactly the same career goals or interests. Consult your advisor if your subject interests vary.


Courses that fit multiple areas of interest
  • EFB 311 Principles of Evolution (3 cr.) S
  • FCH 380 Analytical Chemistry I (2 cr.) F
  • FCH 381 Analytical Chemistry II (3 cr.) S
  • FCH 382 Analytical Chemistry I Laboratory (1 cr.) F
  • FCH 510 Environmental Chemistry (3 cr.) S
  • FCH 531 Biochemistry lab (3 cr.) F
  • MCR 480 Fundamentals of Microscopy (3 cr.) F
  • MCR 484 Scanning Electron Microscopy (3 cr.) F
  • MCR 485 Transmission Electron Microscopy (3 cr.) S

  • BIO 422 Bioinformatics for Life Scientists (3 cr.) – SU course
  • BIO 442 Seminar in Model Organism Genetics (3 cr.) – SU course
  • BIO 443 Seminar in Epigenetics (3 cr.) – SU course
  • BIO 450 Seminar in Evolutionary Genetics (3 cr.) – SU course
  • BIO 463 Molecular Biotechnology (4 cr.) – SU course
  • BIO 464 Applied Biotechnology (4 cr.) – SU course
  • BCM 477 Proteins and Nucleic Acids Lab (3 cr.) – SU course
  • BCM 484 Biomolecular Modeling (3 cr.) – SU course
  • BEN 541 Principles of Tissue Engineering (3 cr.) – SU course
Pre-health (Pre-Veterinary, Pre-Medical, etc.)
  • EFB 360 Epidemiology (3 cr.) F
  • EFB 385 Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy (4 cr.) S
  • EFB 400 Toxic Health Hazards (3 cr.) F
  • EFB 453 Parasitology (3 cr.) F
  • EFB 462 Animal Physiology: Environmental & Ecological (4 cr.) F
  • EHS 320 Disease Prevention (3 cr.) S
  • FCH 390 Drugs from the Wild (3 cr.) F

  • BIO 211 Introduction to Neuroscience (3 cr.) S – SU course
  • BIO 216 Anatomy and Physiology I (4 cr.) F – SU course
  • BIO 217 Anatomy and Physiology II (4 cr.) S – SU course
  • BIO 316 Anatomy & Physiology I for Biology Majors (4 cr.) – SU course
  • BIO 317 Anatomy & Physiology II for Biology Majors (4 cr.) – SU course
  • BIO 355 General Physiology (3 cr.) S – SU course
  • BIO 396 Stem Cells and Society (3 cr.) – SU course
  • BIO 441 Seminar in Infectious Diseases (3 cr.) S – SU course
  • BIO 447 Basic Immunology (3 cr.) – SU course
  • BIO 448 Evolutionary Medicine (3 cr.) – SU course
  • BIO 501 Biology of Cancer (3 cr.) – SU course
  • BIO 503 Developmental Biology (3 cr.) – SU course
Plant Biotechnology
  • BTC 425 Plant Biotechnology (3 cr.) S
  • BTC 426 Intro. Plant Tissue Culture (3 cr.) F
  • EFB 427 Plant Anatomy and Development (3 cr.) F
  • EFB 530 Plant Physiology (3 cr.) S
  • EFB 531 Plant Physiology Lab (2 cr.) S
  • FCH 630 Plant Biochemistry (3 cr.) S
Microbial Biotechnology
  • EFB 340 Forest & Shade tree Pathology (3 cr.) S
  • EFB 428 Mycorrhizal Ecology (3 cr.) F
  • EFB 440 Mycology (3 cr.) F
  • EFB 505 Microbial Ecology (2 cr.) S
Bioprocess Engineering
  • PSE 200 Introduction to Papermaking (3 cr.)*
  • PSE 202 Pulp and Paper Laboratory Skills (1 cr.)*
  • PSE 223 Introduction to Lignocellulosics (4 cr.)*
  • PSE 361 Engineering Thermodynamics (3 cr.)*
  • PSE 370/570 Principles of Mass and Energy Balance (3 cr.)**
  • PSE 371 Fluid Mechanics (3 cr.)*
  • BPE 300 Introduction to Industrial Bioprocessing (3 cr.)*
  • PSE 350/550 Fiber Processing (3 cr.)**
  • PSE 450/650 Pulping and Bleaching Processes (3 cr.)**
  • PSE 465/665 Fiber and Paper Properties (3 cr.)**
  • PSE 438/638 Biorenewable Fibrous and Nonfibrous products (3 cr.)**
  • BPE 310 Colloid and Interface Science (3 cr.)*
  • BPE 420/620 Bioseparations (3 cr.)**
  • BPE 438/638 Introduction to Biorefinery Processes (3 cr.)**
  • BPE 510 Introduction to Polymer Coatings (3 cr.)
  • BPE 536 Radiation Curing of Polymer Technologies (3 cr.)
  • BPE 658 Advanced Biocatalysis (3 cr.)

  • BEN 364/664 Quantitative Physiology (4 cr.) – SU course**
  • BEN 421/621 Biochemical Engineering (3 cr.) – SU course**
  • BEN 433/633 Drug Delivery (3 cr.) – SU course**
  • BEN 462/662 Biofuels, Bioproducts, and Biorefining (3 cr.) – SU course**
  • BEN 468/668 Biomaterials & Medical Devices (3 cr.) – SU course**
  • BEN 473/673 Biomanufacturing (3 cr.) – SU course**
  • BEN 481 Bioinstrumentation (3 cr.) – SU course
  • BEN 561 Polymer Science & Engineering (3 cr.) – SU course

*Useful background and prerequisite courses if you are planning on entering the MPS program in Paper and Bioprocess Engineering.

**The graduate level course may be applicable to the MPS program in Paper and Bioprocess Engineering.

Total Minimum Credits For Degree: 126

Bachelor of Science in Conservation Biology

Conservation biology is the application of science to conserve the earth's imperiled species and ecosystems.

The field is growing rapidly and ever increasing in importance in response to the biodiversity crisis, perhaps the most critical environmental issue of our time. Conservation biologists view all of nature's diversity as important and having inherent value. This diversity spans the biological hierarchy and includes variation at the level of genes, populations, communities, ecosystems, and biomes.

Required Courses

CourseCodes*Credits
APM 105Survey of Calculus and Its Applications I G4
APM 391Introduction to Probability and Statistics G3
EFB 101General Biology I: Organismal Biology and EcologyG3
EFB 102General Biology I LaboratoryG1
EFB 103General Biology II: Cell Biology and Genetics G3
EFB 104General Biology II Laboratory G1
EFB 120The Global Environment and the Evolution of Human Society G3
EFB 132Orientation Seminar: Environmental and Forest Biology 1
EFB 202Ecological Monitoring and Biodiversity Assessment 3
EFB 210Diversity of Life I 3
EFB 211Diversity of Life II 3
EFB 307Principles of Genetics 3
EFB 308Principles of Genetics Laboratory 1
EFB 311Principles of Evolution 3
EFB 320 General Ecology 4
EFB 370Population Ecology and Management 3
EFB 414Senior Synthesis in Conservation Biology 3
EFB 420
OR
EFB 498
Internship in Environmental and Forest Biology

Research Problems in Environmental and Forest Biology



1 - 5

1 - 5
EWP 190Writing and the Environment G3
EWP 290Research Writing and HumanitiesG3
FCH 150General Chemistry I G3
FCH 151General Chemistry Laboratory I G1
FCH 152General Chemistry II G3
FCH 153General Chemistry Laboratory II G1
PHY 101Major Concepts of Physics I 4

Electives

Course Codes* Credits
General Education Course in two of the following categories: American History, The Arts, Western Civilization, Other World Civilizations, Foreign Language G 6
Directed Electives 30
Open Electives 21
Directed Electives

To ensure that Conservation Biology undergraduates obtain both strength and breadth of knowledge, 30 elective credit hours must be distributed in a way that satisfies seven requirements (A-F, below).

  • Field Experience Elective
    At least three elective credits from an approved field course in biology (in addition to the core field course, EFB 202). These credits are typically obtained through an elective course at our Cranberry Lake Biological Station, an approved internship (EFB 420) or field trip course (EFB 500). Approved field courses from other institutions can also fulfill this requirement. No single class may be used to fulfill directed elective requirements of A and B.
  • Biodiversity Specialization (at least three courses from the following list)
    The availability of courses that satisfy this requirement varies. The suggestions below are pre-approved courses that are typically taken - consult with your advisor or the curriculum coordinator about other possibilities. Many other courses can potentially substitute (by petition) for those listed. No single class may be used to fulfill directed elective requirements of A and B.
    • EFB 303 Introductory Environmental Microbiology (4 cr.) F
    • EFB 326 Plant Evolution, Diversification and Conservation (3 cr.) S
    • EFB 336 Dendrology (3 cr.) F
    • EFB 340 Forest and Shade Tree Pathology (3 cr.) S
    • EFB 342 Fungal Diversity and Ecology (3 cr.) CLBS
    • EFB 351 Forest Entomology (3 cr.) F, even years
    • EFB 352 Entomology (3 cr.) F, odd years
    • EFB 355 Invertebrate Zoology (4 cr.) S
    • EFB 388 Ecology of Adirondack Fisheries (3 cr.) CLBS
    • EFB 428 Mycorrhizal Ecology (3 cr.) F, even years
    • EFB 435 Flowering Plants: Diversity, Evolution, and Systematics (3 cr.) F
    • EFB 440 Mycology (3 cr.) F
    • EFB 441 Field Plant Pathology (3 cr.) CLBS
    • EFB 446 Ecology of Mosses (3 cr.) S
    • EFB 453 Parasitology (3 cr.) F
    • EFB 479 Field Ornithology (3 cr.) CLBS
    • EFB 482 Ornithology (4 cr.) S
    • EFB 483 Mammal Diversity (4 cr.) F
    • EFB 485 Herpetology (3 cr.) F
    • EFB 486 Ichthyology (3 cr.) S
    • EFB 496 Wetland Plants & Communities of Adirondacks (3 cr.) CLBS
    • EFB 496 Flora of Central NY (3 cr.) Maymester
    • EFB 554 Aquatic Entomology (3 cr.) F
    • EFB 566 Systematic Entomology (3 cr.) S, even years
  • Applied Conservation Biology (at least 6 credits)
    • EFB 305 Indigenous Issues in the Environment (3 cr.) S
    • EFB 390 Wildlife Ecology and Management (4 cr.) F
    • EFB 423 Marine Ecology (4 cr.) S, even years
    • EFB 424 Limnology (3 cr.) F
    • EFB 444 Biodiversity and Geography of Nature (3 cr.) F
    • EFB 480 Animal Behavior (3 cr) F
    • EFB 487 Fisheries Science & Management (3 cr.) F
    • EFB 493 Management of Wildlife Habitats & Populations (3 cr.) F
    • EFB 502 Ecology and Management of Invasive Species (3 cr.) S
    • EFB 522 Ecology, Resources and Development (2 cr.) S
    • EFB 542 Freshwater Wetland Ecosystems (3 cr.) S
    • FOR 321 Forest Ecology and Silviculture (3 cr.) F
    • FOR 332 Forest Ecology (3 cr.) F
    • FOR 442 Watershed Ecology and Management (3 cr.) F
  • Human Dimensions (at least 3 credits)
    • EFB 404 Nat Hist Museums of Modern Sci (3 cr.) Maymester
    • EST 353 Environ Psychology (3 cr.) S
    • EST 366 Attitudes, Values, & Env. (3 cr.) S
    • EST 390 Social Processes and Environment (3 cr.) S
    • EST 460 Land Use Law (3 cr.) S
    • EWP 390 Intro to Literature of Nature (3 cr.) F
    • FOR 312 Sociology/Natural Resources (3 cr.) S
    • FOR 360 Principles of Management (3 cr.) F
    • FOR 465 Natural Resources and Environ. Policy (3 cr.) F
    • FOR 487 Environmental Law and Policy (3cr.) F
    • FOR 489 Natural Resources Law and Policy (3cr.) S
  • Communications and Interpretation (at least 3 credits)
    • EFB 312 Introduction to Personal Environmental Interpretation Methods (3 cr.) F
    • EFB 417 Non-Personal Environmental Interpretation Methods (3 cr.) S
    • EWP 220 Public Presentation Skills (3 cr.) F,S
    • EWP 407 Writing for Environmental and Science Professionals (3 cr.) F,S
  • Technical Skills (at least 3 credits)
    • BTC 401 Molecular Biol. Techniques (3 cr.) F
    • BTC 425 Plant Biotechnology (3 cr.) S
    • BTC 426 Plant Tissue Culture Methods (3 cr.) F
    • EFB 518 System Ecology (4 cr.) F
    • ERE 445 Hydrological Modeling (3 cr.) F
    • ESF 300 Introduction to Geospatial Information Technologies (3 cr.) F,S
    • ERE 563 Photogrammetry (3 cr.) S
    • MCR 484 Scanning Electron Microscopy (3 cr.) F
    • MCR 485 Transmission Electron Microscopy (3 cr.) S
    • MCR 585 Light Microscopy for Research Applications (3 cr.) S

Total Minimum Credits For Degree: 126

Bachelor of Science in Environmental Biology

The curriculum for the bachelor of science degree in environmental biology is built around a core of required courses that provides a general education, a background in the principles of biological and physical science, and an orientation to natural resources and other environmental concerns.

From this common foundation, the large number of elective credits allows each student to develop a unique plan of study, with the help of an assigned advisor who is expert in the student’s general area of interest. In keeping with the hands-on, field orientation of our curriculum, students also must complete six credit hours of field experience.

Required Courses

CourseCodes*Credits
APM 105Survey of Calculus and Its Applications I G4
APM 391Introduction to Probability and Statistics G3
EFB 101General Biology I: Organismal Biology and EcologyG3
EFB 102General Biology I LaboratoryG1
EFB 103General Biology II: Cell Biology and Genetics G3
EFB 104General Biology II Laboratory G1
EFB 120The Global Environment and the Evolution of Human Society G3
EFB 132Orientation Seminar: Environmental and Forest Biology 1
EFB 202Ecological Monitoring and Biodiversity Assessment 3
EFB 210Diversity of Life I 3
EFB 211Diversity of Life II 3
EFB 307Principles of Genetics 3
EFB 308Principles of Genetics Laboratory 1
EFB 311Principles of Evolution 3
EFB 320 General Ecology 4
EFB 325 Cell Biology 3
EWP 190Writing and the Environment G3
EWP 290Research Writing and HumanitiesG3
FCH 150General Chemistry I G3
FCH 151General Chemistry Laboratory I G1
FCH 152General Chemistry II G3
FCH 153General Chemistry Laboratory II G1
FCH 210Elements of Organic Chemistry 4
PHY 101Major Concepts of Physics I 4
PHY 102
OR
FCH 223
AND
FCH 224
OR
APM 106
Major Concepts of Physics II

Organic Chemistry II

Organic Chemistry Laboratory II

Survey of Calculus and Its Applications II







4

3

1

4

Electives

Course Codes* Credits
General Education Course in two of the following categories: American History, The Arts, Western Civilization, Other World Civilizations, Foreign Language G 6
Directed Electives 25
Open Electives 27

Directed Electives: UPPER DIVISION BIOLOGY-Environmental Biology

To ensure that ENB undergraduates obtain both strength and breadth of knowledge, 25 elective credit hours in biology must be obtained through courses designed for juniors or seniors (i.e., courses numbered 300 or higher). Among them must be courses that satisfy requirements A-C (below).

  • Field Experience Elective
    At least 3 elective credits must come from an approved field biology course (in addition to the core field course, EFB 202). These credits may be obtained through an elective course at Cranberry Lake Biological Station; an approved field course from another accredited institution; an approved internship (EFB 420) or independent research project (EFB498); or a field trip course (EFB 500). Some courses at CLBS meet both requirement A and a diversity requirement.
  • Structure and Function
    At least 3 credit hours must be in the subject area of organism-level physiology, anatomy, or development. The list of allowable courses below may vary slightly from year to year.
    • EFB 385 Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy (4 cr.) S
    • EFB 427 Plant Anatomy and Development (3 cr.) F
    • EFB 462 Animal Physiology: Environmental and Ecological (4 cr.) F
    • EFB 530 Plant Physiology (3 cr.) S
    • BIO 316 Anatomy & Physiology for Biology Majors (4 cr.) F,S
    • BIO 355 General Physiology (3 cr.) F
    • BIO 447 Immunology (3 cr.) F
    • BIO 503 Developmental Biology (3 cr.) S
  • Organismal Diversity
    To encourage breadth in organism-level biology, students must complete at least one course from two of the four groups. (A course from each of the groups is strongly recommended).
    • Diversity of Microorganisms
      • EFB 303 Introductory Environmental Microbiology (4 cr.) F
      • EFB 340 Forest and Shade Tree Pathology (3 cr.) S
      • EFB 342 Fungal Diversity and Ecology (3cr.) CLBS
      • EFB 428 Mycorrhizal Ecology (3 cr) F even years
      • EFB 440 Mycology (3 cr.) F
    • Diversity of Plants
      • EFB 326 Plant Evolution, Diversification and Conservation (3 cr.) S
      • EFB 336 Dendrology (3 cr.) F
      • EFB 337 Field Ethnobotany (3 cr) CLBS
      • EFB 435 Flowering Plants: Diversity, Evolution, and Systematics (3 cr.) F
      • EFB 446 Ecology of Mosses (3 cr.) S
      • EFB 496 Flora of Central NY (3 cr.) Maymester
      • EFB 496 Wetland Plants & Communities of Adirondacks (3 cr.) CLBS
    • Diversity of Invertebrate Animals
      • EFB 351 Forest Entomology (3 cr.) F, even years
      • EFB 352 Entomology (3 cr.) F, odd years
      • EFB 355 Invertebrate Zoology (4 cr.) S
      • EFB 453 Parasitology (3 cr.) F
      • EFB 554 Aquatic Entomology (3 cr.) F
      • EFB 566 Systematic Entomology (3 cr.) S, even years
    • Diversity of Vertebrate Animals
      • EFB 388 Ecology of Adirondack Fishes (3 cr.) CLBS
      • EFB 479 Field Ornithology (3 cr.) CLBS
      • EFB 482 Ornithology (4 cr.) S
      • EFB 483 Mammal Diversity (4 cr.) F
      • EFB 485 Herpetology (3 cr.) S
      • EFB 486 Ichthyology (3 cr.) F

Note that some courses at CLBS meet both requirement A and a diversity requirement.

Total Minimum Credits For Degree: 126

Bachelor of Science in Forest Health

Forest Health is a multidisciplinary and collaborative field of study that involves the understanding, monitoring, and protection of the world's forest resources. Forests support biodiversity, provide immense ecosystem services including water purification and carbon sequestration, and provide essential raw materials. Forest health experts support healthy forests by managing threats caused by invasive species, poor management, climate change, fire, and other anthropogenic factors.

A foundation in forest health requires coursework in ecology, dendrology, forest management, silviculture, mycology, plant pathology, and entomology. This major was developed to address the demand for broadly trained graduates to work in wide range of professional capacities in government agencies, the private sector, and academia.

Required Courses

CourseCodes*Credits
APM 391Introduction to Probability and Statistics G3
EFB 101General Biology I: Organismal Biology and EcologyG3
EFB 102General Biology I LaboratoryG1
EFB 103General Biology II: Cell Biology and Genetics G3
EFB 104General Biology II Laboratory G1
EFB 120The Global Environment and the Evolution of Human Society G3
EFB 132Orientation Seminar: Environmental and Forest Biology 1
EFB 202Ecological Monitoring and Biodiversity Assessment 3
EFB 210Diversity of Life I 3
EFB 211Diversity of Life II 3
EFB 303Introductory Environmental Microbiology 4
EFB 307Principles of Genetics 3
EFB 308Principles of Genetics Laboratory 1
EFB 311Principles of Evolution 3
EFB 320 General Ecology 4
EFB 336Dendrology 3
EFB 340Forest and Shade Tree Pathology 3
EFB 345Forest Health 3
EFB 351
OR
EFB 352
Forest Entomology

Entomology



3

3
EFB 420
OR
EFB 498
Internship in Environmental and Forest Biology

Research Problems in Environmental and Forest Biology



1 - 5

1 - 5
EFB 439Forest Health Monitoring 3
EFB 494Forest Health Capstone 1
EWP 190Writing and the Environment G3
EWP 290Research Writing and HumanitiesG3
FCH 150General Chemistry I G3
FCH 151General Chemistry Laboratory I G1
FCH 152General Chemistry II G3
FCH 153General Chemistry Laboratory II G1
FCH 210Elements of Organic Chemistry 4
FOR 321Forest Ecology and Silviculture 3
FOR 345Introduction to Soils 3
PHY 101Major Concepts of Physics I 4

NOTE: 3 credits of EFB 498 or EFB 420 are required.

Electives

Course Codes* Credits
General Education Course in two of the following categories: American History, The Arts, Western Civilization, Other World Civilizations, Foreign Language G 6
Directed Electives 15
Open Electives 19
Directed Electives

To ensure that Forest Health majors obtain both strength and breadth of knowledge, 15 elective credit hours must be selected from the following list, including at least one course from five of the seven categories.

  • Forest Protection and Conservation Biology
    • EFB 390 Wildlife Ecology & Management (4 cr.) F
    • EFB 413 Intro Conservation Biology (3 cr.) S
    • EFB 502 Ecology and Management of Invasive Species (3 cr.) F
  • Forestry/Wood Products
    • FOR 322 Forest Mensuration (3 cr.) F
    • FOR 334 Silviculture (4 cr.) F
    • FOR 360 Principles of Management (3 cr.) F,S
    • FOR 455 Forest Genetics and Tree Improvement (3 cr.) S
    • FOR 465 Natural Resources and Policy (3 cr.) S
    • FOR 480 Urban Forestry (3 cr.)
    • CME 376 Decay of Wood Products (3 cr.) S
  • Technology
    • BTC 296 Topics in Biotechnology (3 cr.) F,S
    • BTC 401 Molecular Biology Techniques (3 cr.) F
    • BTC 425 Plant Biotechnology (3 cr.) S
    • BTC 426 Plant Tissue Culture Methods (3 cr.) F
    • ESF 300 Introduction to Geospatial Information Technologies (3 cr.) F,S
    • FOR 324 Natural Resources Information Systems (3 cr.) S
  • Ecology and Environmental Science
    • EFB 312 Introduction to Personal Environmental Interpretation Methods (3 cr.) F
    • EFB 415 Ecological Biogeochemistry (3 cr.) F
    • EFB 428 Mycorrhizal Ecology (3 cr.) F
    • EFB 445 Plant Ecology (3 cr.) S
    • EFB 505 Microbial Ecology (3 cr.) S
    • EFB 516 Ecosystems (3 cr.) S
    • EFB 518 Systems Ecology (3 cr.) F
    • FOR 338 Meteorology (3 cr.) F
  • Biodiversity
    • EFB 326 Plant Evolution, Diversification and Conservation (3 cr.) S
    • EFB 342 Fungal Ecology and Diversity (3 cr.) CLBS
    • EFB 351 Forest Entomology (3 cr.) F, even years
    • EFB 352 Entomology (3 cr.) F, odd years
    • EFB 355 Invertebrate Zoology (4 cr.) S
    • EFB 428 Mycorrhizal Ecology (3 cr) F even years
    • EFB 435 Flowering Plants: Diversity, Evolution, and Systematics (3 cr.) F
    • EFB 440 Mycology (A) (3 cr.) F
    • EFB 453 Parasitology (3 cr.) F
    • EFB 566 Systematic Entomology (3 cr.) S, even years
  • Mathematics and Physical Science
    • APM 105 Survey of Calculus and Application I (4 cr.) F,S
    • APM 106 Calculus and its Applications II (A) (4 cr.) F,S
    • APM 510 Statistical Analysis (3 cr.) F
    • FOR 323 Forest Biometrics (3 cr.) S
    • PHY 102 General Physics II (A) (4 cr.) S
  • Anatomy and Physiology
    • EFB 325 Cell Biology (3 cr.) S
    • EFB 427 Plant Anatomy and Development (3 cr.) F
    • EFB 462 Animal Physiology: Environmental & Ecological (4 cr.) F
    • EFB 530 Plant Physiology (3 cr.) S
    • EFB 531 Plant Physiology Lab (2 cr.) S
    • EFB 570 Insect Physiology (3 cr.) S

Total Minimum Credits For Degree: 126

Bachelor of Science in Wildlife Science

Wildlife science is the application of ecological knowledge in a manner that strikes a balance between the needs of wildlife populations and the needs of people.

Research and teaching in wildlife science began at ESF in 1914, one of the first such programs in the U.S., and was quickly followed by establishment of the Roosevelt Wild Life Station in 1919. Today, our program is recognized nationally and internationally, and our graduates are employed worldwide. The focus is applied ecology, and students engage the environmental challenges associated with managing wildlife, ranging from endangered species to overabundant populations. The program recognizes and accommodates the fact that wildlife scientists increasingly must deal with all forms of wildlife, including plants and invertebrates, and the scope is becoming more international.

Required Courses

CourseCodes*Credits
APM 105Survey of Calculus and Its Applications I G4
APM 391Introduction to Probability and Statistics G3
EFB 101General Biology I: Organismal Biology and EcologyG3
EFB 102General Biology I LaboratoryG1
EFB 103General Biology II: Cell Biology and Genetics G3
EFB 104General Biology II Laboratory G1
EFB 120The Global Environment and the Evolution of Human Society G3
EFB 132Orientation Seminar: Environmental and Forest Biology 1
EFB 202Ecological Monitoring and Biodiversity Assessment 3
EFB 210Diversity of Life I 3
EFB 211Diversity of Life II 3
EFB 307Principles of Genetics 3
EFB 308Principles of Genetics Laboratory 1
EFB 311Principles of Evolution 3
EFB 320 General Ecology 4
EFB 390Wildlife Ecology and Management 4
EFB 491Applied Wildlife Science 3
EFB 493Wildlife Habitats and Populations 4
EWP 190Writing and the Environment G3
EWP 290Research Writing and HumanitiesG3
FCH 150General Chemistry I G3
FCH 151General Chemistry Laboratory I G1
FCH 152General Chemistry II G3
FCH 153General Chemistry Laboratory II G1
PHY 101
OR
FCH 210
Major Concepts of Physics I

Elements of Organic Chemistry



4

4

Electives

Course Codes* Credits
General Education Course in two of the following categories: American History, The Arts, Western Civilization, Other World Civilizations, Foreign Language G 6
Directed Electives 24
Open Electives 28
Directed Electives

To ensure that Wildlife Science undergraduates obtain both strength and breadth of knowledge, and position themselves for professional certification by The Wildlife Society, 24 elective credits must be obtained in the following subject areas (A-G), through specific courses that are designed for juniors or seniors (i.e. courses numbered 300 or higher)

  • Field experience (3 credits):
    This requirement can be satisfied during any year, and is normally done via coursework at Cranberry Lake Biological Station. ESF field courses offered during semester break, field courses offered by other institutions or organizations (e.g, School for Field Studies), independent research projects, or job-related internships during the summer session.
  • Vertebrate Diversity (6 credits):
    Choose at least two courses from the following:
    • EFB 482 Ornithology (4 cr.) S
    • EFB 483 Mammal Diversity (4 cr.) F
    • EFB 485 Herpetology (3 cr.) F
    • EFB 486 Ichthyology (3 cr.) S
  • Plant Diversity and Ecology (3 credits)
    Choose at least one course from the following:
    • EFB 326 Plant Evolution, Diversification and Conservation (3 cr.) S
    • EFB 336 Dendrology (3 cr.) F
    • EFB 337 Ethnobotany (3 cr) CLBS
    • EFB 435 Flowering Plants: Diversity, Evolution and Systematics (3 cr.) F
    • EFB 445 Plant Ecology and Global Change (3 cr.) S
    • EFB 496 Wetland Plants & Communities of Adirondacks (3 cr.) CLBS
    • EFB 496 Flora of Central NY (3 cr.) Maymester
  • Invertebrate Diversity (3 credits)
    Choose at least one course from the following:
    • EFB 351 Forest Entomology (3 cr.) F, even years
    • EFB 352 Entomology (3 cr.) F, odd years
    • EFB 355 Invertebrate Zoology (4 cr.) S
    • EFB 453 Parasitology (3 cr.) F
    • EFB 554 Aquatic Entomology (3 cr.) F
    • EFB 566 Systematic Entomology (3 cr.) S, even years
  • Policy (3 credits)
    Choose at least one course from the following:
    • FOR360 Principles of Management (3 cr.) F
    • FOR465 Natural Resources Policy (3 cr.) F
    • FOR487 Environmental Law and Policy (3 cr.) F
    • FOR488 Natural Resources Agencies and Administration (3 cr.) S
    • FOR489 Natural Resources Policy and Law (3 cr.) S
  • Structure and Function (3 credits)
    Choose at least one course from the following:
    • EFB 325 Cell Biology (3 cr.) S
    • EFB 385 Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy (4 cr.) S
    • EFB 462 Animal Physiology: Environmental and Ecological (4 cr.) F
    • EFB 480 Principles of Animal Behavior (4 cr.) F
    • EFB 516 Ecosystems (3 cr.) S
    • EFB 542 Freshwater Wetland Ecosystems (3 cr.) S
  • Technical Skills (3 credits)
    Choose at least one course from the following:
    • BTC 401 Molecular Biology Techniques (3 cr.) F
    • ESF 300 Introduction to Geospatial Information Technologies (3 cr.) F, S
    • ERE 371 Surveying For Engineers (4 cr.) F

Total Minimum Credits For Degree: 126

Graduate Program

The graduate program in Environmental Biology is organized in areas of study designed to provide a strong background in focused interest areas. Faculty with nationally and internationally recognized expertise define the scope of subject matter within each study area, recommend acceptance of students, and guide them through a course of study appropriate to student goals and aspirations. Most students develop a degree of depth and specialization in at least one areas of graduate study (see below).

M.S.

The master of science degree entails a research-based thesis (6-12 credits of thesis research) in addition to 18-24 credits of graduate coursework (including special research topics and at least three seminars) for a total of at least 30 graduate credits. Students earning a M.S. degree find a much wider range of job options that have greater responsibilities and compensation compared to jobs that require only a B.S. degree. Many jobs at the M.S. level require an ability to perform research. Students interested in research positions in government, non-profit organizations, and academic and industry settings should pursue a M.S., rather than M.P.S. degree. Additionally, although not required by many graduate schools, a M.S. degree is often a key step toward earning a Ph.D. The M.S. student presents a thesis proposal to the major professor and committee who will guide completion of the research and writing of the thesis. A capstone seminar and defense of thesis are required.

M.P.S.

The master of professional studies degree requires graduate coursework credits graduate seminars and professional experience (internship). The M.P.S. degree is designed to accommodate a great breadth of student goals and needs, including students desiring additional education following some experience in their field, and science teachers seeking the master's degree for permanent certification. As in all degree programs in EFB, the student will be guided through the M.P.S. by a steering committee.

Ph.D.

The doctor of philosophy degree may be pursued directly from the bachelor’s level, or following a master's degree program. Doctoral study culminates in a dissertation (or its equivalent as refereed publications) based on original research. In many cases this work serves as a foundation for future studies and publications throughout the student's career. Research activity is often funded through extramural grants to the student’s major professor. Abundant opportunities exist to gain teaching experience during the doctoral program. A written and oral examination is required to proceed to doctoral candidacy, at least one year prior to the capstone seminar and defense of the dissertation. Of the 60 credits required, 30-48 are awarded for coursework (including special research topics and at least five seminars) and 12-30 credits for the dissertation.

Graduate Areas of Study

Applied Aquatic & Fisheries Science

Study in this area provides advanced preparation in biological concepts of fisheries and aquatic sciences as they relate to ecology and resource management. M.P.S. students will undertake a professional experience in management or policy, or a synthesis course in aquatic ecology and management planning. M.S. and Ph.D. students will address important research questions with advanced methods in aquatic sciences. Research themes are diverse, examples include parasitology, zebrafish colony management, fish physiology, behavior, otolith microchemistry, population ecology and habitat relationships, restoration, hypoxia and environmental change, trophic dynamics and food webs, species conservation, species at risk, biodiversity, fisheries management, stream ecology, larval fishes, early life history, wetlands, invasive species ecology, limnology, marine ecology, contaminants, environmental change.

Chemical Ecology

Chemical ecologists study organismal interactions, both intra- and interspecific, mediated by chemical substances. These interactions occur among microbes, plants, and animals. Study of such interactions typically involves joint efforts of biologists and chemists in basic and applied research in the laboratory and field. The application of chemical ecology has contributed significantly to reduced pesticide use and improved yields in forestry and agriculture while protecting the environment from harmful contaminants.

The study of chemical ecology is offered through collaboration between the Department of Environmental Biology and the Department of Chemistry. Interested students should apply to the department of major interest. Faculty from both areas contribute to the development of a plan of study enabling each student to acquire advanced skills in either biology or chemistry and an ample understanding of the other field to grapple with problems requiring an understanding of both.

Conservation Biology

This area entails study and maintenance of biological diversity at the level of genes, populations, communities, ecosystems and biomes; intellectual underpinnings include evolutionary theory, systematic biology, population biology and ecosystem science. Conservation biology seeks ways to integrate biological principles with social, economic and political perspectives to achieve conservation goals.

Ecology and Evolution

This integrative study area allows students to investigate the relationships of organisms to their environment and those factors that affect their distribution and abundance. Both the practical and theoretical applications of ecology are emphasized through courses and research.

There are four major areas in ecology: organismal ecology, population-evolutionary ecology, community ecology and systems ecology. In consultation with the student's steering committee, courses are chosen from these areas, as well as other disciplines. Specific research may encompass any of the four major areas of ecology and entail the study of the distribution and abundance of organisms, community structure including trophic relationships, diversity, succession and ecosystem properties, such as patterns of energy transfer and biogeochemical cycling.

Entomology

Graduate study opportunities prepare students in the basic aspects of insect life and the role of insects in relation to humans and their environment.

The wide range of effects stemming from insect activity, from the beneficial to the deleterious, allows for a variety of research subjects in which insects play a major role. Thesis topics may concern insects that affect forests, shade trees and wood products, those relating to the health and well-being of humans, those playing key roles as parasites and predators of pest species, and those serving as food for many birds and vertebrate animals. Current research areas include population dynamics of forest defoliators, pheromone communications in beetles and moths, evolution of chemical communication, effects of forest practices on stream benthic insects, natural control of insects in forest systems and biochemistry of insect detoxification mechanisms.

Environmental Biotechnology

Environmental Biotechnology is defined as a branch of biotechnology that addresses environmental problems, such as the genetic rescue of a species, the removal of pollution, renewable energy generation or biomass production, all by using biological processes for the protection and restoration of the quality of the environment.

The tools of biotechnology are having ever increasing applications to conserving our natural environments. Examples include the restoration of species and ecosystems, phyto- and microbial-remediation of polluted soils and water, making cleaner, more efficient and recyclable products, and increasing our understanding of how the environment works at molecular and cellular levels. The study of environmental biotechnology provides opportunity in a broad range of specialties fundamental to the understanding of plants, animals, and microbes and their interaction with other organisms and environments.

Indigenous People & the Environment

Indigenous people are the stewards of fully 4% of the land area of the United States and represent some 700 distinct communities possessing detailed knowledge of the biota of their homelands. Native American land holdings in North America collectively contain more wildlands than all of the National Parks and Nature Conservancy areas in North America. Globally, Indigenous people inhabit areas with some of the highest remaining biodiversity on the planet and are actively being engaged as partners in biodiversity conservation. Issues of sustainable development, resource management and ecological restoration all include Native American stakeholders. Federal agencies are required to consult with tribes on a government-to-government basis on a host of scientific and natural resource policies. Thus, our ESF graduates have a high probability of encountering issues involving Indigenous cultures and TEK.

However, the majority of scientific professionals and educators have little understanding of the value of TEK or its cultural context. Exposure to TEK has a legitimate role in the education of the next generation of biologists, environmental scientists, and natural resource managers. TEK has value not only for the wealth of biological information it contains, but for the cultural framework of respect, reciprocity and responsibility in which it is embedded (Kimmerer 1998, Pierotti and Wildcat 2000). The Center for Native People and the Environment has developed a series of integrated educational offerings that will enrich our curriculum with coursework and allied programs that increase student's awareness of TEK and Native American perspectives on the environment.

Microbiology

Graduate study opportunities exploring the role and diversity of microbes in clinical, industrial, and environmental realms.

Our understanding of microbes' central role in host health & physiology, biogeochemical processes, and global change continues to expand. ESF's Microbiology program provides a basic education in the core disciplines of microbiology, but relies heavily on student-driven cutting-edge research. Depending on the major professor, training will include basic microbiological, molecular, and computational techniques to answer current questions in microbiology. Current research areas include, but are not limited to, pathogenic microbiology, microbial ecology, virology, bacteriology, microbial diversity and physiology, host-microbe interactions, and vector-borne diseases. Graduate degrees in microbiology better prepare students for a wide range of clinical, industrial, or environmental microbiology occupations.

Molecular Biology and Ecology

Graduate students in this integrative program develop and apply molecular biological methods to address questions in Ecology.

Students in this graduate area conduct interdisciplinary research using molecular tools to address important ecological and evolutionary questions. Students work with their faculty advisor to develop research projects, often combining both laboratory and field work. Areas of research at ESF cut across several disciplines, and include phylogenetics, biogeography, phylogeography, population genetics, genomics, conservation genetics, animal and plant diseases, immunology, and biodiversity. Coursework requirements developed with the major professor and steering committee, and are tailored to individual student project and career goals.

Mycology and Forest Pathology

The study of Mycology and Forest Pathology provides opportunity in a broad range of specialties fundamental to the understanding of fungi and their interaction with other organisms, and for specializations in forest pathology.

Graduate students in this program are provided with advanced preparation in the biology of fungi and in the concepts and practicalities of forest pathology. Current research interests include; taxonomy and systematics of fungi; mycorrhizal ecology; biology of parasites and symbionts; growth, developmental biology, and ultrastructure of fungi; disease resistance in trees; genetic engineering; plant-pathogen interactions; fungal phylogenetics; molecular ecology; biodiversity and conservation of fungi.

Students in this graduate area use a range of tools to address important questions pertaining to the above. Students work with their faculty advisor to develop research projects, often combining both laboratory and field work. Coursework requirements are developed with the major professor and steering committee and are tailored to individual student project and career goals.

Plant Science

Plants, as the base for ecological food chains, serve as the structural and functional foundation of natural and managed systems. The study of plant science and biotechnology provides opportunity in a broad range of specialties fundamental to the understanding of plants and their interaction with other organisms and for specializing in plant biotechnology.

Emphasis is on forests and related plant systems. Current research interests include dynamics of plant communities as affected by humans and the environment; mechanisms of plant succession; epidemiology of forest and urban tree diseases; taxonomy, physiology, growth and ultrastructure of fungi; heritability of wood properties and disease resistance of trees; biochemistry and physiology of plant stress response; photosynthesis; mycorrhizae; plant reproductive biology; genetic engineering; transformation; molecular evolution; phylogenetics; taxonomy; plant-pathogen interactions, tissue culture and study of ancient DNA.

Wildlife Ecology and Management Ecology

Study in this area provides students with advanced preparation in biological concepts of wildlife populations as they relate to resource management. M.P.S. students will undertake a professional experience in wildlife management or policy, or a synthesis course in wildlife management planning. M.S. and Ph.D. students will address important research questions in wildlife science, typically aimed at supporting resource management agencies in their decision making.

The work of a wildlife biologist is diverse and often includes monitoring the status of wildlife populations, restoration of declining or extirpated species or populations, managing sustainable harvests of game species, identifying and managing threats to wildlife and their habitat, mitigation of human-wildlife conflict, and communicating wildlife issues and regulations with the public. Graduate education is rapidly becoming a universal prerequisite to employment as a professional wildlife biologist. A major strength of our program is the diversity of our research partners, including the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Geological Survey, the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, and many other state agencies. Graduate students working on agency-funded projects typically network with representatives from these agencies, which often opens up career opportunities. Certification by The Wildlife Society is supported by our faculty, and also enhances career opportunities because many state and federal agencies, and consulting firms give hiring preference to those who are certified. Graduates with an advanced degree in Wildlife Ecology and Management from ESF are employed worldwide, with nearly 100 percent placement shortly after graduation.


* Special Course Codes (Code indicates course meets certain program or accreditation requirements. Ignore if there is no relevance to this program of study.) G = General Education Course (GenEd), E = Engineering, ES = Engineering Sciences, M = Mathematic, NS = Natural Sciences, PE = Professional Education, S = Summer-only