Lecture 1 - Introduction

I. Introduction; Syllabus Review/Background

II. What is limnology and why study it?
    A. Limnology – study of inland waters
        1. Standing waters – lentic
        2. Flowing waters – lotic
   B. Interdisciplinary science -- geology, chemistry, physics, biology
   C. Greater diversity of freshwater systems than of oceans
        1. Size
        2. Origin
        3. Temperature
        4. Age
        5. Color
        6. Chemistry
        7. Biology is often determined by the rest of the limnological parameters
   D. Water distribution (Table 1-1, Wetzel)

water in biosphere; Wetzel

    E. Water usage

    F. Environmental Problems -- e.g., acid rain, pollution, eutrophication, climate change, exotic species...

    G. Lake systems are a web of interconnected processes

interaction of factors that influence the biota; Rawson 1939

    H. Lakes are good places to study ecology
        1. easier boundaries
        2. easy to sample
        3. shorter-lived organisms
        4. field experiments easier to perform than in oceans

III. History of Limnology (don't worry about the names!)
    A. F.A. Forel, "Father of Limnology"
        1. Lac Leman (Lake Geneva) -- began biological studies
        2. Influenced by oceanography

   B. S.A. Forbes, Illinois Natural History Survey (1887)
        1. "Lake as a Microcosm"
        2. Beginnings of ecosystem ecology

    C.  US -- Birge and Juday -- Wisconsin school of limnologists
        1. sampled many lakes -- comparative approach
        2. 'the data will speak' versus hypothesis testing

    D. Europe -- Thienemann and Naumann
        1. Lake classification
        2. Continuation of ecosystem ecology

    E. G.E. Hutchinson
        1. Treatise of Limnology (1957 first volume)
        2. theories and processes; modeling
        3. influential in founding modern ecological thought
        4. fight between Wisconsin school and Hutchinson

    F. Current -- integration of research on lakes, streams, rivers and their watersheds --
            ecosystem approaches; human influences on freshwater systems

IV. Limnology and the development of Ecology
    A. Standing crop, biomass, productivity
        1. 'Dynamical ecology'
        2. Not just what's there, but how fast it's growing
    B. Ecosystem Ecology
    C. Paleoecology
    D. Trophic dynamics (Lindeman) -- Food webs and energy flow

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