Publications links


Journal publications

Here are some of my scientific publications.

Primary research articles
Title Description Author(s) Year Reference pdf?
On the mound of Macrotermes michaelseni as an organ of respiratory gas exchange Tracer gases are used to measure actual flows of air in Macrotermes mounds and nests. J S Turner 2001 Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 74(6): 798-822 Beyond biomimicry
Architecture and morphogenesis in the mound of Macrotermes michaelseni (Sjöstedt) (Isoptera: Termitidae, Macrotermitinae) in northern Namibia Mounds of Macrotermes are sliced and reconstructed, yielding quantitative assessments of void space, soil volume, etc. The mound is a dynamic structure J S Turner 2000 Cimbebasia 16: 143-175. Beyond biomimicry
On the thermal capacity of a bird’s egg warmed by a brood patch Birds that incubate their eggs intermittently put in AC pulses of heat. How this heat is transferred to the egg is a matter of egg impedance rather than resistance, which leads to surprising conclusions about incubation energetics. Among them is that eggs have an apparent thermal capacity that varies with incubation frequency. J S Turner 1997 Physiological Zoology 70: 470-480 Beyond biomimicry
Transient thermal properties of contact-incubated chicken eggs I measure the thermal impedance of birds' eggs using an artificial brood patch. J S Turner 1994 Physiological Zoology 67: 1426-1447 Beyond biomimicry
Thermal impedance of a contact-incubated bird’s egg I measure the thermal impedance of birds' eggs using an artificial brood patch. J S Turner 1994 Journal of Thermal Biology 19: 237-243 Beyond biomimicry
Ventilation and thermal constancy of the colony of a southern African termite (Odontotermes transvaalensis: Macrotermitinae) The air flows and thermal properties of an open chimney macrotermitine nest are nothing like what the literature suggests. J S Turner 1994 Journal of Arid Environments. 28: 231-248 Beyond biomimicry
Anomalous water loss rates from spittle nests of spittle bugs (Homoptera: Cercopidae) Water loss rates from the spittle nest are anomalously low. This, and other observations, suggest the spittle nest is a means of dumping excess ammonia. J S Turner 1994 Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. 107A: 679-683
Thermal constraints on prey-capture behavior of a burrowing spider in a hot environment Namib dune spiders "shuttle" back and forth to the surface to distentangle prey. This has always been thought to be thermal shuttling. Using measurements of actual cooling curves of spiders, we show that this behavior is not thermal shuttling. J S Turner
J B Henschel
Y D Lubin
1993 Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology 33: 35-43 Beyond biomimicry
Thermal ecology of a subterranean dwarf succulent from southern Africa (Lithops spp: Mesembryanthemaceae) "Window plants" are thought to have many unusual adaptations for the hot microclimate they inhabit. Using a combination of heat transfer modeling and experimental measurements, we show there is only one that counts: the clarity of the window. J S Turner
M D Picker
1993 Journal of Arid Environments 24: 361-385 Beyond biomimicry
Contrasting physiological abilities for heating and cooling in an amphibian (Rana pipiens) and a reptile (Sauromalus obesus) Amphibians may have less (or no) control over their rates of temperature change. C R Tracy
C R Tracy
J S Turner
1992 Herpetologica 48: 57-60 Tracy, Tracy and Turner
Ants nesting under stones in the Karoo: Predator avoidance, safe sites for foundress queens or temperature benefits? Richard Dean and I looked at temperature benefits that might accrue to ants nesting under stones. We didn't find much, mainly because soil thermal capacity is so high that nest temperatures are driven mostly by that W R J Dean
J S Turner
1991 Journal of Arid Environments 21: 59-69
The thermal energetics of an incubated chicken egg. This paper looked at the effects of two-dimensional heat flow through an egg, which is the appropriate way to model it. The thermal energetics is much different. J S Turner 1990 Journal of Thermal Biology 15: 211-
Body color and body temperature in white and black Namib desert beetles The black desert beetle paradox (that black animals can actually be cooler in the desert) is the subject here. Mandy Lombard and I did a detailed thermal analysis for black Namib tenebrionid beetles, and found that black or white color made little difference to beetle temperature as long as winds were above about 1 m/s. In the beetles' natural habitats, this is almost always the case. J S Turner
A T Lombard
1990 Journal of Arid Environments 19: 303-315 Beyond biomimicry
Metabolic responses to gradual cooling in chicken eggs treated with thiourea and oxygen Thyroid development seems to be the threshold event in the ability of chicken embryos to begin generating substantial quantities of metabolic heat. H Tazawa
G C Whittow
J S Turner
C V Paganelli
1989 Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 92A: 619-622 Beyond biomimicry
Metabolic compensation to gradual cooling in developing chick embryos Developing homeothermy is throttled in late-stage chicken embryos by the gas conductance of the shell. H Tazawa
Y Suzuki
J S Turner
C V Paganelli
1988 Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 89A: 125-129 Beyond biomimicry
Cooling rates of living and killed chicken and quail eggs in air and in helium-oxygen gas mixture By cooling eggs in a helium-air mixture, we demonstrate that embryonic blood circulation can significantly redistribute heat within the egg. H Tazawa
J S Turner
C V Paganelli
1988 Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 90A: 99-102 Beyond biomimicry
Body size and thermal energetics. How should thermal conductance scale? Thermal conductance does not scale to a single power curve, but two, one by convection with an exponent close to 0.5, and radiation, with an exponent close to 0.67. This means that eggs of different sizes differ in the relative importance of radiation and convection. J S Turner 1988 Journal of Thermal Biology 13: 103-117 Beyond biomimicry
On the transient temperatures of ectotherms This is a very theoretical paper that outlines how to think properly about transient temperatures, including using concepts like thermal impedance. J S Turner 1987 Journal of Thermal Biology 12: 207-214 Beyond biomimicry
Embryonic blood flow and the heat exchange of avian eggs I never could get this published, so I published it myself. J S Turner 1987 Privately published. 9 pp. N/A
Blood circulation and the flows of heat in an incubated egg Here, I outline first thoughts on the different physics of brood patch incubation (two dimensional) and cooling in air (one dimensional) which suggests we've been getting incubation energetics wrong all along. J S Turner 1987 Journal of Experimental Zoology (Supplement 1): 99-104. Beyond biomimicry
Body size, homeothermy and the control of heat exchange in mammal-like reptiles Large and small reptiles control internal heat distribution in different ways. Specifically, large reptiles rely more on appendages than small reptiles do. Above a certain body size, new heat exchange surfaces, such as plates or fins (as in the sail of Dimetrodon) are needed to control heat exchange. J S Turner and C R Tracy 1986 In: N J Hotton III, P D MacLean, J J Roth and E C Roth, eds., The Ecology and Biology of Mammal-Like Reptiles. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C pp. 185-194. Beyond biomimicry
A biophysical analysis of possible thermoregulatory adaptations in sailed pelycosaurs Dick Tracy and Ray Huey took the analysis of heat exchange through fins to the next level, showing that the sail of Dimetrodon could significantly alter heating and cooling rates. This suggests that they could have been ecothermic, without significant disadvantage. C R Tracy
J S Turner
R B Huey
1986 In: N J Hotton III, P D MacLean, J J Roth and E C Roth, eds., The Ecology and Biology of Mammal-Like Reptiles. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. pp. 195-206 Beyond biomimicry
Cooling rate and size of birds’ eggs - a natural isomorphic body Birds' eggs form a natural isomorphic body for analyzing the complex variation of heat exchange as body size varies. J S Turner 1985 Journal of Thermal Biology 10: 101-104 Beyond biomimicry
Burst swimming of alligators and the effect of temperature. Here, we measured the effects of temperature on burst swimming. At the time, physiological ecology was abuzz with talk of performance curves, namely performance of muscle and what it meant. Temperature variation also affects the behavioral willingness of alligators to swim, which has an ecological effect at least as great as muscle performance. J S Turner
C R Tracy
B Weigler
T Baynes
1985 Journal of Herpetology 19: 450-458. Beyond biomimicry
Why are small homeotherms born naked? Insulation and the critical radius concept. The critical radius concept says that, below a certain body size, insulation should actually increase heat loss. Some said this was why small homeotherms were born naked. Bob Schroter and I looked at this idea using experimental models of furred creatures and concluded the critical radius concept (developed initially for designing insulation in wires) does not apply to diffuse insulation like fur or pelage. J S Turner and R C Schroter 1985 Journal of Thermal Biology 10: 233-238. Beyond biomimicry
Body size and the control of heat exchange in alligators. At the time this paper was published, there was speculation that large reptiles had very good physiological control over heat exchange. This meant that dinosaurs could be very good behavioral thermoregulators. I show here that is not true, that there is an optimum body size for using blood to control heat exchange. Animals larger than this had to develop accessory heat exchange surfaces, like fins or sails, to use blood flow to regulate heat exchange. J S Turner
C R Tracy
1985 Journal of Thermal Biology 10: 9-12. Beyond biomimicry
Raymond B Cowles and the biology of temperature in reptiles. Raymond Cowles was a pioneer in modern concepts of thermoregulation in ectotherms. This is a review of the development of his thinking. J S Turner 1984 Journal of Herpetology 18: 421-436. Beyond biomimicry
Blood flow to appendages and the control of heat exchange in the American alligator. Blood flow to appendages is a significant and neglected phenomenon in the physiological control of temperature in ectotherms. This is especially the case in large reptiles. J S Turner C R Tracy 1983 Physiological Zoology 56: 195-200. Beyond biomimicry
What is physiological ecology? Dick Tracy and I explored what physiological ecology was. This was for the Ecological Society of America, which was deciding whether to devote a special section to it. C R Tracy
J S Turner
1982 Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 63: 340-341. Beyond biomimicry