It is commonly believed that invasive plants arrive in the United States accidentally; a study by the Brooklyn Botanic Garden showed that this is not so. The study found that half of the worst invasive plant species were brought here intentionally, for horticultural use.
Gardening with native species is an effective way to deal with this problem. You can help! The following links will help you to find native North American plants for every use and location.
Learn about native plant species on the Web
Printed references for native plant species
- ESF's Bibliography of Native Trees
Native Trees, Shrubs, Wildflowers, Ferns, and Graminoids for Northeastern North America Gardens
Learn about invasive plant species on the Web
Native Trees, Shrubs, Wildflowers, Ferns, and Graminoids for Northeastern North America Gardens*
Armitage, A.M. 1989. Herbaceous Perennial Plants. A Treatise on Their Identification, Culture, and Garden Attributes. Varsity Press, Inc., Athens, Georgia, 646 p.
Armitage, A.M. 2000. Armitage’s Garden Perennials: A Color Encyclopedia. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon, 323 p.
Baskin, C.C. and J.M. Baskin. 1998. Seeds. Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination. Academic Press, San Diego, 666 p.
Bray, W.L. 1915. The development of the vegetation of New York State. New York State College of Forestry Technical Publication No. 3, Syracuse, New York.
Braun, E.L. 1950. Deciduous Forests of Eastern North America. MacMillan Publishing Company Inc., New York, New York.
Clausen, R.R. and N.H. Ekstrom. 1989. Perennials for American Gardens. Random House, New York, New York, 631 p.
Cullina, William. 2000. The New England Wildflower Society Guide to Growing and Propagating Wildflowers of the United States and Canada. A Frances Tenenbaum Book, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 322 p.
Cullina, William. 2002. Native Trees, Shrubs, & Vines. A Guide to Using, Growing, and Propagating North American Woody Plants. A Frances Tenebaum Book, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 354 pages.
Curtis, J.T. 1959. The Vegetation of Wisconsin. An Ordination of Plant Communities. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wisconsin, 657 p.
Darke, R. 1999. The Color Encyclopedia of Ornamental Grasses. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon, 325 p.
Dirr, M.A. and C.W. Heuser, Jr. 1987. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. From Seed to Tissue Culture. Varsity Press, Inc., Athens, Georgia, 239 p.
Dirr, M.A. 1998. Manual of Woody Landscape Plants, 5th ed., Stipes Publishing, Champaign, Illinois, 1187.
Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial & Palustrine Plant Communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 86 p.
Fralish, J.S. and S.B. Franklin. 2002. Taxonomy and Ecology of Woody Plants in North American Forests (Excluding Mexico and Subtropical Florida). John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY, 612 p.
Gleason, H.A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada, 2nd edition. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY, 910 pages.
Greenlee, J. 1992. The Encyclopedia of Ornamental Grasses. Rodale Press, Emmaus, Pennsylvania, 186 p.
Harper-Lore, B. and M. Wilson. 2000. Roadside Use of Native Plants. Island Press, Washington, D.C., 665 p.
Henderson, C.L. 1987. Landscaping for Wildlife. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul, MN, 149 p.
Hoshizaki, B.J. and R.C. Moran. 2001. Fern Grower’s Manual. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon, 604 p.
Keddy, P.A. 2000. Wetland Ecology Principles and Conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 614 p.
Leopold, D.J., W.C. McComb, and R.N. Muller. 1998. Trees of the Central Hardwood Forests of North America. An Identification and Cultivation Guide. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon, 469 p.
Lloyd, C. 2000. Christopher Lloyd’s Garden Flowers. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon, 384 p.
Mickel, J.T. 1994. Ferns for American Gardens. Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, New York, 370 p.
Mitchell, R.S. and G.C. Tucker. 1997. Revised Checklist of New York State Plants. New York State Museum Bulletin No. 490, University of State of New York, State Education Department, Albany, New York, 400 p.
Mitsch, W.J. and J.G. Gosselink. 2000. Wetlands. 3rd ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 920 p.
Raynal, D.J. and D.J. Leopold. 1999. Landowner’s Guide to State-protected Plants of Forests in New York State. SUNY-ESF, Syracuse, NY, 92 p.
Rickard, M. 2000. The Plantfinder’s Guide to Garden Ferns. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon, 192 p.
Still, S.M. 1994. Manual of Herbaceous Ornamental Plants, 4th ed. Stipes Publishing Company, Champaign, Illinois, 814 p.
Stokes, D., L. Stokes, and E. Williams. 1991. Stokes Butterfly Book: The Complete Guide to Buttefly Gardening, Identification, and Behavior. Little, Brown & Company, Boston, MA, 96 p.
Thomas, G. S. 1990. Perennial Garden Plants or The Modern Florilegium. 3rd edition. Sagapress/Timber Press, Inc., Portland, Oregon, 463 pages.
Thompson, E.H. and E.R. Sorenson. 2000. Wetland, Woodland, Wildland. A Guide to the Natural Communities of Vermont. University Press of New England, Hanover, New Hampshire, 456 p.
Woods, C. 1992. Encyclopedia of Perennials: A Gardener’ Guide. Facts on File, Inc., New York, New York, 350 p.
* Copyright @ 2003 by Donald J. Leopold