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Faculty Profile
Raymond Francis

Raymond  Francis

Research Associate

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311 Walters Hall



Obtained Bachelor’s degree in Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry from University of Toronto in 1982. Obtained Ph.D in same discipline from the same university in 1987. Joined the CHE Faculty as a Research Associate in May 1987. Dr. Francis obtained four GOALI Awards on non-sulfur lignin from the Chemistry Division of the National Science Foundation (NSF) during 2005 – 2013, three of the awards were on soda/quinone lignins and one on lignin precipitated from the hot water pre-treatment step (pH 3.0-3.5) in lignocellulosic ethanol production. He was the Principal Investigator and Andritz Inc. was the industrial partner on all 4 occasions.

Present Courses Being Taught

  • PSE 438/638 - Renewable Fibrous and Non-fibrous Products
  • PSE 450/650 - Pulping and Bleaching

Research Areas

Wood Chemistry, Pulping, Bleaching, and Biobased Materials


Vice Chair of the TAPPI Wood Chemistry Committee from 1998-2000. Member of the Editorial Advisory Board for the Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology since 2005.

Selected Publications

Nicholson, D. J., Leavitt, A. T., Stromberg, B. and Francis, R. C. “Mechanistic Differences between kraft and soda-AQ pulping of hardwoods with regards to lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCC)”, J. Wood Chem. Technol. 37, 307-322 (2017).

Nicholson, D. J., Leavitt, A. T. and Francis, R. C. “A three-stage method for more accurate determinations of hardwood lignin content”, Cell. Chem. Technol. 48, 53-59 (2014).

Alves, E. F., Bose, S. K., Francis, R. C. and El Moussaouiti, M. “Trapping of p-coumaryl and coniferyl alcohol during soda-AQ treatment – a means of estimating uncondensed β-O-4 structures in native lignin”, J. Agric. Food Chem. 60, 9202-9210 (2012).

Alves, E. F., Bose, S. K., Francis, R. C., Colodette, J. L., Iakovlev, M., VanHeiningen, A., “Carbohydrate composition of eucalyptus, bagasse and bamboo by a combination of methods”, Carbohydrate Polymers 82, 1097 – 1101 (2010).

Bose, S. K., Barber, V.A., Alves, E.F., Kiemle, D.J., Stipanovic, A.J. and Francis, R.C., “An Improved Method for the Hydrolysis of Hardwood Carbohydrates to Monomers”, Carbohydrate Polymers, 78, 396-401 (2009).

Bose, S.K., Francis, R.C., Govender, M., Bush, T. and Spark, A., “Syringyl to Guaiacyl Ratio versus Lignin Content amongst Poplars”, Bioresource Technology, 100, 1628-1633 (2009).

Francis, R.C., Bolton, T. S., Abdoulmoumine, N., Lavrykova, N. and Bose, S. K., “Positive and Negative Aspects of Soda/anthraquinone Pulping of Hardwoods”, Bioresource Technology, 99, 8453-8457 (2008).

Sameer, N., Markwei, M., Ramarao, B. V., Francis, R. C., “Recovery of Molybdate from Dilute Aqueous Solutions by Complexation with Cationic Surfactants and Extraction with Isobutanol”, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 47, 428-433 (2008).

Bose, S. K., Wilson, K. L., Francis, R. C., and Aoyama, M., “Lignin Analysis by Permanganate Oxidation, Part 1. – Native Spruce Lignin”, Holzforschung 52, 297-303 (1998).


Patents Awarded

Amidon, T.E., Francis, R.C., Scott, G.M., Bartholomew, J. et al. “Methods of producing a paper product. US Patent 9,683,329 (2017).

Amidon, T.E., Francis, R.C., Scott, G.M., Bartholomew, J. et al. “Product and processes from an integrated forest biorefinery. US Patent 9,273,431 (2016).

Francis, R. C., “Methods of pretreating comminuted cellulosic material with carbonate-containing solutions” U.S. Patent 8,303,767 (2012).

Francis, Raymond; Shin, Nam Hee.  Methods for carbonate pretreatment and pulping of cellulosic material. PCT Appl.  WO 2007/137127 (11/29/2007) and USPTO Appl. 2007/0284068 at ( Canadian Patent 2,651,483 was obtained from the PCT application but a US Patent was not granted.

Evans, T. D. and Francis, R. C., "Method for Brightening Chemical Pulp with Hydrogen Peroxide Using a Magnesium Compound in Silicate Solution" U.S. Patent 6,699,358 (2004).

Francis, R.C., Zhang, X.-Z., and Troughton, N.A., “Ozone/Peroxymonosulfate Process for Delignifying a Lignocellulosic Material” U.S. Patent 5, 411, 635 (1995).

Francis, R.C. and D.B. Evans, “Method of Reducing Thermal and Light-Induced Brightness Reversion in Lignin-Containing Pulp.” U.S. patent 5,360,515 (1994).

Francis, R.C., Dence, C.W., and T.C. Alexander, “Method for Reducing Brightness Reversion in Lignin-Containing Pulps and Articles of Manufacture Thereof.” U.S. patent 5,080,754 (1992).

Francis, R.C. and Reeve, D.W., “Process for the Oxidative Delignification of Demethylated Chemical Pulp”, U.S. Patent 4,729,817 (1988).