Publications | The Willow Project | Research | ESF
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Fact Sheets

Research Summaries

Commercial Case Studies

Journal Articles

2022
  • Carbon footprint of biofuels production from forest biomass using hot water extraction and biochemical conversion in the Northeast United States
  • 2021
  • Continuous measurement of CO2, CH4 and H2O fluxes from restored marl fen and inland salt marsh communities overlaying chemical-byproduct settling basins
  • Variability in growth and cadmium accumulation capacity among willow hybrids and their parents: implications for yield-based selection of Cd-efficient cultivars
  • Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of ethanol produced via fermentation of sugars derived from shrub willow (Salix ssp.) hot water extraction in the Northeast United States
  • Effects of greenhouse gas emissions timing on alternative biomass and fossil energy sources for district heating
  • The US bioeconomy at the intersection of technology, policy, and education
  • Random Forest Outperformed Convolutional Neural Networks for Shrub Willow Above Ground Biomass Estimation Using Multi-Spectral UAS Imagery
  • Estimation of shrub willow leaf chlorophyll concentration across different growth stages using a hand-held chlorophyll meter to monitor plant health and production
  • An assessment of the harvesting and fuel performance of a single-pass cut-and-chip harvester in commercial-scale short-rotation poplar crops as influenced by crop and weather
  • The practice and economics of hybrid poplar biomass production for biofuels and bioproducts in the Pacific Northwest
  • Comparison of Machine and Deep Learning Methods to Estimate Shrub Willow Biomass from UAS Imagery
  • Life cycle assessment of a shrub willow evapotranspiration cover compared with conventional clay and geosynthetic covers in Upstate New York
  • Climate Change Impacts of Electricity Generated at a Waste-to-Energy Facility
  • Storage of Biomass Feedstocks: Risks and Opportunities
  • 2020
  • Improved Advanced Biomass Logistics Utilizing Woody and other Feedstocks in the Northeast and Pacific Northwest
  • Life cycle assessment of forest biomass energy feedstock in the Northeast United States
  • Cut-and-chip harvester material capacity and fuel performance on commercial-scale willow fields for varying ground and crop conditions
  • The financial trade-off between the production of biochar and biofuel via pyrolysis under uncertainty
  • Optimization of harvest and logistics for multiple lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks in the northeastern United States
  • Hot water extracted and non-extracted willow biomass storage performance: fuel quality changes and dry matter losses
  • Forest and crop leaf area index estimation using remote sensing: Research trends and future directions
  • Willow Biomass Crops Are a Carbon Negative or Low-Carbon Feedstock Depending on Prior Land Use and Transportation Distances to End Users
  • Hot water extraction: short rotation willow, mixed hardwoods, and process considerations
  • 2019
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    • Abrahamson, L.P., Robison, D.J., Volk, T.A., White, E.H., Neuhauser, E.F., Benjamin, W.H., Peterson, J.M. (1998). Sustainability and environmental issues associated with willow bioenergy development in New York (U.S.A.). Biomass and Bioenergy, 15(1), 17-22.
    • Abrahamson, L. P., White, E. H., Nowak, C. A., Briggs, R. D., & Robison, D. J. (1990). Evaluating hybrid poplar clonal growth potential in a three-year-old genetic selection field trial. Biomass, 21(2), 101-114.
    • Abrahamson, L.P., D.J. Robison, and E.H. White.  1988.  Site preparation, weed control and herbicide use in fast- growing hardwood plantations.  In M.C. Vodak (Ed.), Proceedings: Forestry Herbicides in the Northeast 1988 March 15-16, New Brunswick, NJ. Cook College, Rutgers University. (Pp. 73-81).
    • Abrahamson, L.P.  (1992). Managing insect pests of fast-growing hardwoods. In D.C. Allen & L.P. Abrahamson (Eds.), Proceedings: North American Forest Insect Work Conference, March 25-28, 1991 Denver, CO. General Technical Report PNW-GTR- 294. (Pp. 119ff).
    • Abrahamson, L.P., R.C. McKittrick, E.H. White, R.F. Kopp, & C.A. Nowak. (1992).  Successful no-till hybrid poplar establishment in New York (Abstract only). Forestry Chronicle, 68(2), 218.
    • Abrahamson, L. P., White, E. H., Nowak, C. A., & Kopp, R. F. (1990). Yield potential of willow in New York State. evidence from two years research in an ultrashort-rotation system. Energy from Biomass and Wastes XIII, New Orleans, LA, USA. 261-174.
    • Ballard, B.D., S.V. Stehman, R.D. Briggs, T.A. Volk, L.P. Abrahamson & E.H. White. (1999).  Aboveground biomass equation development for five Salix and one Populus clone.  Misc. Report New York Center for Forestry Research and Development (NYCFRD – 99- 01), Syracuse, NY: SUNY-ESF.
    • Bickelhaupt, D.H., C.A. Nowak, E.H. White, & L.P. Abrahamson. (1988).  Biomass produc­tion and nutrient accumulation of ultrashort-rotation willow and poplar plantations in New York State. Soil Science Society of America Annual Meeting, Nov.27-Dec.2, Anaheim, CA., Agronomy Abstracts, p.290.
    • Fain, J.J., Volk, T.A., Fahey, T.J. (1994). Fifty years of change in an upland forest in south-central New York: General patterns. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 121(2), 130-139.
    • Kopp, R. F., Abrahamson, L. P., White, E. H., Burns, K. F., & Nowak, C. A. (1997). Cutting cycle and spacing effects on biomass production by a willow clone in New York. Biomass and Bioenergy, 12(5), 313-319. doi:10.1016/S0961-9534(96)00077-3
    • Kopp, R.F., L.P. Abrahamson, C.A. Nowak, & E.H. White. (1991).  Pre-emergent her­bicides for site preparation in ultrashort-rotation willow plantings: Early first-year results. In P. Williams (Ed.), Agroforestry in North America, Proceedings of the First Conference on Agroforestry in North America, August 13-16, 1989. (Pp. 116-121). Guelph, Ontario, Canada:  University of Guelph.
    • Kopp, R.F., D.H. Bickelhaupt, E.H. White, & L.P. Abrahamson. (1993).  Effect of fertilization on willow biomass production and nutrient removal in a bioenergy system. Soil Science Society of America Annual Meeting, Nov. 7-12, 1993. Cincinnati, OH, Agronomy Abstracts, p. 337.
    • Kopp, R.F., L.P. Abrahamson, C.A. Nowak, & E.H. White. (1992). Pre-emergent her­bicides for site preparation in Salix plantings. Forestry Chronicle 68(2), 218- 219.
    • Kopp, R.F., E.H. White, L.P. Abrahamson, C.A. Nowak, & K.F. Burns. (1993). Willow biomass trials in central New York State.  Biomass and Bioenergy 5(2), 179-187.
    • Kopp, R. F., Abrahamson, L. P., White, E. H., Nowak, C. A., Zsuffa, L., & Burns, K. F. (1996). Woodgrass spacing and fertilization effects on wood biomass production by a willow clone. Biomass and Bioenergy, 11(6), 451-457. doi:10.1016/S0961-9534(96)00055-4
    • Kopp, R.F., Abrahamson, L.P., White, E.H., Volk, T.A., Nowak, C.A., Fillhart, R.C. (2001). Willow biomass production during ten successive annual harvests. Biomass and Bioenergy, 20(1), 1-7.
    • Kopp, R. F., Castello, J. D., & Abrahamson, L. P. (1999). Viruses in salix grown for bioenergy. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 29(2), 117-122.
    • Kopp, R. F., Maynard, C. A., De Niella, P. R., Smart, L. B., & Abrahamson, L. P. (2002). Collection and storage of pollen from Salix (Salicaceae). American Journal of Botany, 89(2), 248-252.
    • Kopp, R. F., Smart, L. B., Maynard, C. A., Isebrands, J. G., Tuskan, G. A., & Abrahamson, L. P. (2001). The development of improved willow clones for eastern North America. Forestry Chronicle, 77(2), 287-292.
    • Kopp, R. F., Smart, L. B., Maynard, C. A., Tuskan, G. A., & Abrahamson, L. P. (2002). Predicting within-family variability in juvenile height growth of Salix based upon similarity among parental AFLP fingerprints. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 105(1), 106-112. doi:10.1007/s00122-001-0855-3
    • Kuzovkina, Y.A., Volk, T.A. (2009). The characterization of willow (Salix L.) varieties for use in ecological engineering applications: Co-ordination of structure, function and autecology. Ecological Engineering, 35(8), 1178-1189.
    • Lo, M.H., Abrahamson, L.P., White, E.H., & Manion, P.D. (1995). Early measures of basal area and canker disease predict growth-potential of some hybrid poplar clones. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 25(7), 1113-1118.
    • Lo, M. H., & Abrahamson, L. P. (1996). Principal component analysis to evaluate the relative performance of nine year old hybrid poplar clones. Biomass and Bioenergy, 10(1), 1-6.
    • Nowak, C.A., E.H. White, L.P. Abrahamson, & B. Barkley. (1988).  Site considerations for the culture of Populus hybrids in New York State. Soil Science Society of America Annual Meet­ing, Nov.27-Dec. Anaheim, CA., Agronomy Abstracts p. 297.
    • Nowak, C.A., R.F. Kopp, L.P. Abrahamson, E.H. White, & J.G. Sah. (1989).  Biomass production and nutrient accumulation among 1-year-old willow clones grown in a "wood grass" system. SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry Faculty of Forestry Technological Publication No. 3 (ESF 89-003), 18p.
    • Nowak, C.A., E.H. White, L.P. Abrahamson, & R.F. Kopp. (1989).  Physiological basis for increased willow wood biomass with fertilization. Agronomy Abstracts, Madison, WI. p.241.
    • Nowak, C.A., T.A. Volk, B.D. Ballard, L.P. Abrahamson, R.C. Fillhart, R.F. Kopp, D. Bickelhaupt & E.H. White. (1999).  The role and process of monitoring willow biomass plantations In O.P. Overend & E. Chornet (Eds.), Proceedings of the 4th Biomass Conference of the Americas -   Biomass: A Growth Opportunity in Green Energy and Value-added Products August 29-September 2, 1999, Oakland, CA.  V. 1. (Pp. 25-29). Oxford: Pergamon.
    • Nordman, E.E., Robison, D.J., Abrahamson, L.P., Volk, T.A. (2005). Relative resistance of willow and poplar biomass production clones across a continuum of herbivorous insect specialization: Univariate and multivariate approaches. Forest Ecology and Management, 217(2-3), 307-318.
    • Park, B.B., Yanai, R.D., Sahm, J.M., Lee, D.K., & Abrahamson, L.P. (2005). Wood ash effects on plant and soil in a willow bioenergy plantation. Biomass & Bioenergy, 28(4), 355-365.
    • Park, B. B., Yanai, R. D., Sahm, J. M., Ballard, B. D., & Abrahamson, L. P. (2004). Wood ash effects on soil solution and nutrient budgets in a willow bioenergy plantation. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 159(1), 209-224. doi:10.1023/B:WATE.0000049177.60761.37
    • Pian, C.C.P and T.A. Volk. 2009. Willow biomass gasification feasibility study. In: Badeau, J-P. and A. Levi. (eds). Biomass Gasification: Chemistry, Process and Applications. (pp. 71-86). Hauppage, NY: Nova Science Publishers.
    • Robison, D.J., L.P. Abrahamson, & E.H. White. (1994).  Silviculture of wood biomass crops as an energy feedstock. The New York Forest Owner, Sept./Oct., 4-5.
    • Robison, D.J., T. Rooney, L.P. Abrahamson, & E.H. White. (1994). Wood energy issues in New York. The New York Forest Owner, July/Aug., 5.
    • Sahm, J.M., E.H. White, & L.P. Abrahamson. (1993). Wood ash applications in willow bioenergy plantations. Soil Science Society of America Annual Meeting, Nov. 7-12, 1993, Cincinnati, OH, Agronomy Abstracts, 338-339
    • Sahm, J.M., T. Koch, C.A. Nowak, L.P. Abrahamson, & E.H. White. (1994). Utilization of wood boiler ash: An annotated bibliography. SUNY College of Environmental Science & Forestry, Faculty of Forestry Technological Publication Series. No. 5., 44pp.
    • Sahm, J.M., E.H. White, L.P. Abrahamson, & C.A. Nowak.  (1994). Wood ash applications in willow bioenergy plantations. 85th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Agonomy, 1993 November 7-12, Cincinnati, OH. Madison, WI: Agronomy Abstracts, 339
    • Tharakan, P. J., Robison, D. J., Abrahamson, L. P., & Nowak, C. A. (2001). Multivariate approach for integrated evaluation of clonal biomass production potential. Biomass and Bioenergy, 21(4), 237-247. doi:10.1016/S0961-9534(01)00038-1
    • Tharakan, P.J., Volk, T.A., Abrahamson, L.P., White, E.H. (2003). Energy feedstock characteristics of willow and hybrid poplar clones at harvest age. Biomass and Bioenergy, 25(6), 571-580.
    • Tharakan, P.J., Volk, T.A., Lindsey, C.A., Abrahamson, L.P., White, E.H. (2005). Evaluating the impact of three incentive programs on the economics of co-firing willow biomass with coal in New York State. Energy Policy, 33(3), 337-347.
    • Tharakan, P.J., Volk, T.A., Nowak, C.A. and G. Ofezu. (2008). Canopy Structure, Light Interception, and Light-Use Efficiency in Willow. BioEnergy Research. 1(3-4), 229 – 238.
    • Tharakan, P.J., C.A. Nowak, L.P. Abrahamson, D.J. Robison & T.A. Volk. (1999). Characterization of willow bioenergy clones: A step towards improving yield. Abstract In Proceedings of the 4th Biomass Conference of the Americas - A Growth Opportunity in Green Energy and Value-added Products August 29-September 2, 1999, Oakland, CA.  Addendum to the Proceedings, 26.
    • Tharakan, P.J., L.P. Abrahamson, D. J. Robison, J.G. Isebrands, C.A. Nowak, T.A. Volk & E.H. White. (2000). Coppice effects on willow and hybrid poplar stem attributes and biomass production. In J.G. Isebrands & J. Richardson (Compilers). 21st Session of the International Poplar Commission (IPC 2000). Poplar and Willow Culture: Meeting the Needs of Society and the Environment. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report NC-215, 175.
    • Tharakan, P.J., T.A. Volk, C.L. Lindsey, S. Edick, J. Dickerson, P. Ray & L. P. Abrahamson. (2001). A technical and economic analysis of willow biomass crops grown on conservation reserve program land in New York State. Fifth Biomass Conference of the Americas. Sept. 17-21, 2001, Orlando, FL. 2pp.
    • Tharakan, P.J., C.A. Nowak, L.P. Abrahamson, T.A. Volk, E.H. White, D.J. Robison, & J.G. Isebrands. (2001). Coppice effects on willow and hybrid poplar stem attributes and biomass production. In T.A. Volk, J. Ballard & L.P. Abrahamson (Compilers). Proceedings of the Third Biennial Short-Rotation Woody Crops Operations Working Group Conference, Syracuse, NY October 10-13. Syracuse, NY: SUNY-ESF, 193.
    • Ulzen-Appiah, F., R.D. Biggs, L.P. Abrahamson & D.H. Bickelhaupt. (2001). Soil carbon pool in a short-rotation willow (Salix dasyclados) plantation four years after establishment. In T.A. Volk, J. Ballard & L.P. Abrahamson (Compilers). Proceedings of the Third Biennial Short-Rotation Woody Crops Operations Working Group Conference, Syracuse, NY October 10-13. Syracuse, NY: SUNY-ESF, 153.
    • Volk, T.A., Ballard, B., Robison, D.J., Abrahamson, L.P. (2004). Effect of cutting storage conditions during planting operations on the survival and biomass production of four willow (Salix L.) clones. New Forests, 28(1), 63-78.
    • Volk, T.A., L.P. Abrahamson, E.H. White, R.F. Kopp, & C.A. Nowak.  (1999).  Producing short-rotation crops in the Northeastern United States. In Proceedings of the Second Short-Rotation Wood Crops Operations working Group Conference, Vancouver, WA, August 24-28, 1998, 7-16.
    • Volk, T.A., L.P. Abrahamson, E.H. White & M. Downing. (2000). Developing a Willow Biomass Crop Enterprise in the United States. In L. Christersson & L. Wright (Eds). Proceedings of the Third Meeting of IEA Bioenergy Task 17 Short-Rotation Crops for Bioenergy, Auburn, AL, Sept. 6 – 9, 1999. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Rep. No. ORNL/TM-2000/311. 49 – 56.
    • Volk, T.A., B. Ballard, D.J. Robison & L.P. Abrahamson. (2000). Effect of cutting storage conditions on the survival and early growth of four willow clones. In J.G. Isebrands & J. Richardson (Compilers). 21st Session of the International Poplar Commission (IPC 2000). Poplar and Willow Culture: Meeting the Needs of Society and the Environment. USDA Forestry Service General Technical Report NC-215, 197
    •  Volk, T.A., D.J. Robison & L.P. Abrahamson. (2000). Alternative methods of site preparation for willow and poplar biomass crops in the Northeastern United States. In J.G. Isebrands & J. Richardson (Compilers). 21st Session of the International Poplar Commission (IPC 2000). Poplar and Willow Culture: Meeting the Needs of Society and the Environment. USDA Forestry Service General Technical Report NC-215, 196.
    • Volk, T.A., B.D. Kiernan, R.F. Kopp & L.P. Abrahamson. (2001). First- and second-rotation yields of willow clones at two sites in New York State. Fifth Biomass Conference of the Americas. Sept. 17-21, 2001, Orlando, FL. 2pp.
    • Volk, T.A., L.P. Abrahamson & S. Edick. (2002). Outreach, education efforts and landowner participation in the Salix Consortium’s willow biomass project. In L. Christerson & L. Kuiper (eds). Proceedings of the Last Meeting of IEA Bioenergy Task 17: Short-Rotation Crops for Energy Purpose, in the Netherlands and Sweden, Dec. 11 – 16, 2000, Report 70, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden 2002, 6-12.
    • Wagner, J.E., C.A. Nowak & L.P. Abrahamson. (2001). Herbicide screening trial for willow biomass crops: Applied at pre-emergence and post-emergence. In T.A. Volk, J. Ballard & L.P. Abrahamson (Compilers). Proceedings of the Third Biennial Short-Rotation Woody Crops Operations Working Group Conference, Syracuse, NY October 10-13. Syracuse, NY: SUNY-ESF, 109.
    • White, E.H., L.P. Abrahamson, R.L. Gambles, & L. Zsuffa.  (1988).  Experiences with willow as a wood biomass species.  Bio-Joule, 10(5), 4-7.
    • White, E.H., L.P. Abrahamson, R.L. Gambles, & L. Zsuffa. (1989).  Experiences with willow as a wood biomass species. In D.L. Klass (Ed.), Proceedings "Energy from Biomass and Wastes XII.”(Pp. 125-152).Chicago: Institute Of Gas Technology.
    • White, E.H., L.P. Abrahamson, R.F. Kopp, C.A. Nowak,  J. Sahm.  (1991).  Technological and economic aspects of biomass production from short rotation hardwood planta­tions. In Proceedings of the Fifth ABC International Biotechnology Meeting, May 13-16, 1991, Washington, DC. (Pp. 110-117).
    • White, E.H., L.P. Abrahamson, R.F. Kopp, C.A. Nowak, L. Zsuffa & R.L. Gambles. (1991).  Increased willow wood biomass yields by breeding, fertilization and irrigation. In D.L. Klass (Ed.), Energy From Biomass and Wastes XIV Conference, Jan. 28-Feb. 2, 1990, Orlando, FL. (Pp. 371-388). XIV-91. Chicago, IL: Institute of Gas Technology.
    • White, E.H., L.P. Abrahamson, R.F. Kopp, & C.A. Nowak.  (1992). Bioenergy plantations in New York - 10-year results (Abstract only). Forestry Chronicle 68(2), 221.
    • White, E.H., L.P. Abrahamson, R.F. Kopp, C.A. Nowak, & J. Sahm. (1992).  Integrated woody biomass systems in Eastern North America. In C.P. Mitchell, L. Sennerby-Forsse, & L. Zsuffa (Eds.), XIX IUFRO Congress, Problems and Perspec­tives of Forest Biomass Energy,  International Workshop of Project Group P1.09-00, P3.04-07 and P5.03-00, August 1990, Montreal, Canada. (Pp. 68-75). Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Report 48, Uppsala 1992.
    • White, E.H., L.P. Abrahamson, C.A. Nowak, R.F. Kopp, & L. Zsuffa.  (1992).  Integrated woody bioenergy plantations in Eastern North America. In D.L. Klass (Ed.), Energy From Biomass and Wastes XV Conference, Mar. 25-29, 1991, Washington, DC. Chicago, IL: Institute of Gas Technology.
    • White, E.H., L.P. Abrahamson, R.F. Kopp, & C.A. Nowak. (1993). Willow bioenergy plantation research in the Northeast. In Proceedings, First Biomass Conference of the Americas: Energy, Environment, Agriculture, and Industry, Aug. 30-Sept.2, 1993, Burlington, Vermont, Vol.I. (Pp. 199-213).
    • White, E.H., L.P. Abrahamson, & D.J. Robison. (1995).  Commercialization of willow bioenergy - A dedicated feedstock supply system. In Proceedings, Second Biomass Conference of the Americas: Energy, Environment, Agriculture, and Industry, Aug. 21-24, 1995, Portland, OR.  (Pp. 1534-1546).
    • White, E.H., L.P. Abrahamson, D.J. Robison, E.F. Neuhauser, W.H. Benjamin, & J.M. Peterson.  (1996).  Developing the willow biomass-bioenergy industry in New York: Challenges for commercializing the crop production system. In BIOENERGY ‘96 Conference Proceedings, Sept. 15-19, 1996, Nashville, TN. (Pp. 60-67).
    • White, E.H., E.F. Neuhauser, L.P. Abrahamson, T.A. Volk, C.A. Nowak, J.M. Peterson, E. Gray, C. Demeter & C. Lindsey. (1999).  Progress towards making willow biomass crops the fuel of the future in the northeastern United States.  In Proceedings of the 4th Biomass Conference of the Americas - Biomass: A Growth Opportunity in Green Energy and Value-added Products August 29-September 2, 1999, Oakland, CA.  Volume 1, 75-78.
    • White, E.H., T.A. Volk, A.J. Stipanovic, T.E. Amidon, E. Neuhauser, L.P. Abrahamson, E. Gray, C. Lindsey, J. Jarnefeld, D.J. Aneshansley, R.C Fillhart, B.D. Kiernan & S. Edick. (2001). Growing willow biomass crops for bioproducts and bioenergy in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States. Fifth Biomass Conference of the Americas. Sept. 17-21, 2001, Orlando, FL. 2pp.